Lungs Hist.txt

The flashcards below were created by user emm64 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Image Upload 1
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Systemic noncaseating granulomatous disease – can affect perhaps every organ.
    • Usual sites of granulomas are mediastinal lymph nodes, lungs, liver.
    • Disease of exclusion
    • Great variation in lung disease manifestation – from minimal subclinical to severe interstitial fibrosis with end stage restrictive lung disease.
    • Histology shows well-formed non-caseating granulomas.
  2. Image Upload 2
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Histology shows well-formed non-caseating granulomas
  3. Image Upload 3
    • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
    • Hypersensitivity reaction to an inhaled antigen that results in chronic bronchocentric inflammation.
    • May be acute, subacute (intermittent) or chronic.
    • Acute reactions due to type III hypersensitivity; chronic reaction due to type IV hypersensitivity.
    • Symptoms include: dyspnea, fever, malaise, weight loss, clubbing
    • More than 300 antigens have been described. Common agents include bird peptides (especially parakeet) and fungi (living in moldy hay, dust, hot tubs, humidifiers)
  4. Image Upload 4
    • Poorly Formed Granuloma
    • hypersensitivity penumonitis, pt has restrictive lung disease; vs. if someone is acting clinically like they have TB and you see a granuloma, they prob have TB
    • -question is very much in the presentation- ex. if granuloma is in the context of restrictive lung disease, vs in context of TB
  5. Image Upload 5
    • Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia
    • Pattern of uniform septal thickening
    • Fibrotic and cellular patterns
    • May be primary or secondary.
    • Secondary causes include collagen vascular diseases (like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis), drugs, infection. Mimickers include lymphoma
    • -NSIP: similar to UIP, but instead of having stark contrast btw normal & severe disease, there is a much more gradual transition
    • fibrotic and cellular patterns- UIP is very fibrotic
    • NSIP may be the manifestation of another disease
  6. Image Upload 6
    Normal lung parenchyma
  7. Image Upload 7

    Image Upload 8
    • Usual interstitial pneumonia
    • Histologic pattern seen in diffuse, bilateral interstitial lung disease~9/100/000, usually between 50-70
    • Poor prognosis, mean length of survival 3.2-5.0 years
    • Idiopathic, genetic and environmental risk factors known
    • Characteristic clinical, radiologic, and histologic features
  8. Image Upload 9
    • Usual interstitial pneumonia
    • Histologic pattern seen in diffuse, bilateral interstitial lung disease
    • ~9/100/000, usually between 50-70
    • Poor prognosis, mean length of survival 3.2-5.0 years
    • Idiopathic, genetic and environmental risk factors known
    • Characteristic clinical, radiologic, and histologic features
  9. Image Upload 10
    • Emphysema
    • Centrilobular emphysema is the most common form and is associated with smoking. Damage to alveolar walls adjacent to respiratory bronchioles is observed.
    • Panacinar (panlobular) emphysema is observed in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. The entire lobule is involved
    • -there has been complete destruction of the alveolar wall in the center;
  10. Image Upload 11
    • Gross Emphysema
    • -right: normal lung; if you felt it, it would be soft, smooth, cannot distinguish btw apex and base
    • -left: cavitations in lung, and much of normal parenchyma has been lost; much worse at apex of lung than at the base of the lung (seen in smokers)
  11. Image Upload 12
    • normal bronchiole
    • epithelium should sit right on top of the smooth muscle
    • if this bronchiole needed to expand, it has elasticity and has no problem expanding- this is why there are undulations of the epithelium; also, can constrict
  12. Image Upload 13
    • Chronic Bronchitis
    • clinical diagnosis defined as daily productive cough for 3 months, 2 years in a row.
    • Histologic features:
    • chronic inflammation
    • goblet cell hyperplasia
    • increase in submucosal mucous glands
    • -in smokers, esp chronic smokers, you have scarring in the smaller airways
    • -lumen should be 2x the size; if you lose half the surface area of the lumen, it will be much harder to get air through it
    • also, scarring means there is fibrosis and loss of elasticity, so it doesn’t expand like you would want it to if more air is needed
  13. Image Upload 14
    • mucostasis, inflammatory cells (but no eosinophils), edema; this is the bronchus, which we can tell bc of cartilage (upper left)
    • -in a normal, healthy lumen, there is nothing there; here, there is mucus & debris (right side of pic)
    • -this image won’t be on the test; generally, histologic pics will be cleaner
  14. Image Upload 15
    • Status Asthmaticus
    • this case came from a young man that died from asthma
    • -all airways were full of mucus (mucostasis), bc mucous glands are hyperstimulated, causing obstruction to movement of air
  15. Image Upload 16
    • Asthmatic Bronchitis
    • eosinophils, basement membrane- classic picture for asthma; this is a “high-yield” histologic picture- KNOW THIS
    • inflammed mucosa; there has been edema in the tissue, due to inflammation- fluid comes out of leaky capillaries
  16. Image Upload 17
    Image Upload 18
  17. Bronchus
    • cartilage and submucosal glands
    • can see plates of cartilage, telling you this is a bronchus and not a bronchiole
  18. Image Upload 19
    Image Upload 20
  19. Image Upload 21
    Image Upload 22
  20. Image Upload 23
    Image Upload 24
Author
ID
141699
Card Set
Lungs Hist.txt
Description
Wallace Lung
Updated
Show Answers