Vert Phys exam 2

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Vert Phys exam 2
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2012-03-23 13:00:03
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vert phys exam 2
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  1. sympathetic nervous system orientation of neurons
    • cell body is in the CNS
    • synapse in the chain ganglia
    • post ganglionic neuron move to organs
    • some use the splanchnic nerve
  2. parasympathetic cranial outflow
    • comes from the brain
    • innervates organs of the head neck thorax and abdomen
  3. parasympathetic sacral outflow
    supplies remaining abdominal and pelvic regions
  4. origin of preganglionic fibers for the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sympathetic is in the thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord
    • parasympathetic is in the brain and sacral regions of the spinal cord
  5. origin of post ganglionic fibers in sympathetic and parasympathetic
    • sympathetic is in the sympathetic ganglion chain near spinal cord or collateral ganglia about halfway between spine and organ
    • parasympathetic is in the terminal ganglia near effector organs
  6. lenght and types of fibers in sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sympathetic- short cholinergic preganglionic fibers and long adregergic postganglionic fibers
    • parasympathetic- long cholinergic preganglionic fibers and short cholinergic postganglionic fibers
  7. effector organs of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    both- cardiac muscle almost all smooth muscle most exocrine glands and some endocrine glands
  8. types of receptors for neurotransmitters in sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sympathetic- nicotinic and adrenergic (a1,a2,B1,B2)
    • parasympathetic- nicotinic and muscarinic (acetylcholine)
  9. dominance of parasympathetic and sympathetic
    • sympathetic- emergency fight or flight situations and prepares body for strenuous physical activity
    • parasympathetic- quiet relaxed situations promotes general housekeeping activities like digestion
  10. site of origin for somatic and autonomic
    • autonomic
    • P- brain and sacral spine
    • S- lateral horn of thracic and lumbar spine
    • somatic- ventral horn of spine cord, muscle in head are from the brain
  11. number of neurons for somatic and autonmic
    two for autonomic and one for somatic
  12. organs innervated by somatic and autonomic
    • autonomic- cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, exocrine, some endocrine glands
    • somatic- skeletal muscle
  13. types of innervation of somatic and autonomic
    • autonomic- most effector organs dually innervated by two antagonistic branches S and P
    • somatic- effector organs innervated only by motor neurons
  14. neurotransmitters used by somatic and autonomic systems
    • autonomic- acetylcholine or norepinephrine
    • somatic- only acetylcholine
  15. effects on organs of somatic and autonomic systems
    • autonomic- either stimulation or inhibition
    • somatic- stimulation only inhibition possible only centrally through ipsps on dendrites and cell body of motor neuron
  16. types of control for autonomic and somatic
    • autonomic- involuntary control
    • somatic- voluntary control much of which is subconsciously
  17. higher centers involved in control of autonomic and somatic systems
    • autonomic- spinal cord, medulla, hypothalmus, prefrontal association cortex
    • somatic- spinal cord, motor cortex, basal nuclei, cerebellum, brain stem
  18. muscles
    • largest group of tissues in body
    • make up 40% of weight
  19. 3 types of muscle
    • skeletal muscle
    • cardiac muscle\
    • smooth muscle
  20. skeletal muscle
    • make up the muscular system
    • moves bones
    • striated
    • voluntary (not always)
  21. cardiac muscle
    • found only in heart
    • straited involuntary
  22. smooth muscle
    • appears throughout body systems as components of hollow organs and tubes
    • unstriated
    • involuntary
    • lungs
    • heart
    • gut
    • vessels
  23. 2 ways to classify muscle
    • striated verses unstriated
    • voluntary or involuntary
  24. what links a bone and muscle
    tendon
  25. outer part of a muscle
    epimysium
  26. endomycium
    muscle fibers
  27. fascicles
    bundles of muscle fibers
  28. perimycium
  29. how many nuclei do muscle cells have
    many
  30. sarcolemna
    plasma membrane of the muscle cell
  31. myofibril
    • contractile elements of muscle fiber
    • regular arrangement of thick and thin filaments
    • displays alternatig dark (A bands) and light bands ((I Bands) giving appearance of striations
  32. where does striated muscle get its appearance from
    arrangement of sarcomeres
  33. thin filaments
    • myosine
    • 12-18 nano mieters in diameter
  34. thick filaments
    • actin
    • 5-8 nm in diameter
  35. muscle fibers
    • 10-100 microns in diameter
    • formed by the fusion of mysoblasts therefore multiple nuclei in muscle cell
  36. myosin
    • component of thick filament
    • protein molecule consisting of two identical subunits shaped somewhat like a golf club
    • tail ends (alpha helices) are intertwined around each other
    • globular heads project out at one ends
    • tails oriented toward center of filament and heads toward outside at regular intervals (head form cross bridge between thick and thin filaments
    • will sponatneously polymerize into the structure found in muscle
  37. two important sites of a cross bridge
    • actin binding site
    • myosin ATPase site
  38. sarcomere
    • functional unit of skeletal muscel
    • found between 2 z lines (connects thin filaments of wo adjoining sarcomeres)
  39. z lines
    on each side of an actin and myosin sections
  40. actin
    • primary sturctural component of thin filament
    • thin filament contains two other proteins
    • each actin molecule has special binding sites for attachment with mysocin cross bridge
    • bindign results in contraction on muscle fiber
    • acts as a rope that is pulled by myosin pulling Z lines together
  41. orientation of myosin and actin
    1 myosin is surrounded by 6 actin and each actin is surounded by 3 myosin
  42. two proteins in thin filament
    • tropomyosin
    • troponin
  43. regions of sarcomere
    • A band
    • H zone
    • M line
    • I band
  44. A band
    made up of think filaments along with porions of thin filaments that overlap on both ends of thick filaments
  45. H zone
    • lighter area within middle of A band where thin filaments do not reach (no thin filaments)
    • only myosin
  46. M line
    • extends vertically down middle of A band within center of H zone
    • has enzymes for muscle metabolism
  47. I band
    • consists of remaining portion of thin filaments that do not project into A band
    • no thick filaments
    • just actin
  48. z disk
    alpha actinin for anchoring actin filaments
  49. what is observed during muscle contraction
    • z lines come together
    • h zone shortens and I band shortens but A band stays the same, whole sarcomere shortens
    • no change in length of thick and thin filaments
    • overlap increases
    • actin interacts with and slides past myosin to produce shorening
  50. Sliding filament theory predictions
    • myosin heads (cross bridges) interact with actin to slide and generate force
    • each mysocin actin interactions produce independent unit of force
    • overall force generated should be proportional to the number of actin and myosin interactions
  51. what is the force produced by a muscle dependent on
    the presence of calcium
  52. tropomyosin
    • rod shaped protein that binds in the groove actin helix and covers up myosin binding site
    • during the relaxed state
  53. troponin
    • globular protein in skeletal muscle
    • conformation i calcium sensitive (binds 4 calciums) regulates position of tropomyosin
    • when it binds calcium tropomyosin moves so that actin and myosin can react
    • basically teathers tropomyosin to the myosin binding site
  54. how does calcium effect troponin
    • binds troponin
    • troponin-tropomyosin complex aside to expose cross bridge binding site
    • cross bridge binding occurs
    • binding of actin and myosin cross bridge triggers power stroke that pulls thin filament inward during contraction
  55. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • modified endoplasmic reticulum
    • consists of fine network of interconnected compartments that surround each myofibril
    • not continuous but encircles myofibril throughout its length
    • segments are wrapped around each A band and each I band
    • ends of segments expand to form saclike regions-- lateral sacs (terminal cistenae)
  56. T tubules
    • Transverse tubules
    • occur at junctions of I and A bands
    • run perpendicularly from surface of muscle cell membrane into central portions of the muscle fiber
    • since membrane is continuous with surface membrane action potential on surface membrane also spreads down into t tubule
    • spread of action potential down t tubule triggers release of Ca from sarcoplasmic reticulum into cytosol
  57. what type of receptor is on sarcoplamsic reticulum membrane
    calcium ligated calcium channel
  58. muscle contraction
    • ap comes down motor neuron and releases acetylcholine
    • sodium potassium channels open depolarizing
    • current spreads along muscle and down T tubule
    • VG calcium channels open increasing intracellular calcium
    • calcium ligated channels open in the Sarcoplasmic reticulum
    • calcium binds troponin
    • troponin allows the movement of tropomyosin off the mysoin binding site
    • mysoin cross bridge binds to binding sites on actin
    • powerstroke
  59. what happens to calcium after contraction
    it is retaken up by ATPase into the sarcoplasmic reticulum
  60. power stroke
    • cross bridge of myosin bends pulling thin myofilament inward
    • actin cross bridge bends toward center of thick filament rowing the thin filament inward to which it is attached
    • sarcoplasmic reticulum releases calcium into sarcoplasm
    • myosin heads bind to actin
    • myosin heads swivel toward center of sarcomer
    • atp binds myosin head and detaches it from actin
  61. special sites on the myosin cross bridge
    • actin binding site
    • atpase site
  62. cross bridge cycle
    • atp split by mysocin ATPase aDP and P remain attached to myosin, energy stored in cross bridge (cocks bridge)
    • will remain that way until calcium released on excitation removing inhibitory influence from actin enabling it to bind with bridge
    • power stroke releases P and ADP
    • binding of new ATP releases cross bridge from actin and breaks it into ADP and P
  63. what happens during rigor
    no fresh ATP binds to the cross bridge of myosin and the mysoin remains bound to actin
  64. how is acetycholine controled
    the acetylcholine that is not used will be broken down by acetlcholinesterase at the neuromuscular junction
  65. relaxation of muscle
    • acetylcholinesterase breaks down acetylcholine
    • muscle fiber action potential stops
    • calcium moves back into SR
  66. what influences muscle contraction
    • action potential of motor neuron
    • acetylcholine release
    • breakdown of acetylcholine
    • activity of sodium potassium channel
    • activity of calcium channel
    • anything that keeps calcium in cytoplasm longer
  67. why is there a latent period between action potentials and contraction
    time due to calcium movement
  68. tetanus
    when a muscle fiber is rapidly stimulated so that it does not have an opportunity to relax at all betweeen stimuli so a maximal sustained contraction occurs
  69. twitch summation
    muscle fiber is restimulated before it has complelty relaxed so the second stimulation adds to the first twitch because even more calcium is released
  70. to prevent muscle fatigue
    • allow different fivers to contract at different times
    • accumulation of lactic acid (glycolysis) affecting excitation contraction coupling
    • accumulation of potassium due to inhibility of sodium and potassium pumps to keep up with results of muscle activity pertially depolarizing muscle cells
    • depletion of glycogen energy reserves
  71. central fatigue
    • brain sys it hurts makes you stop
    • decreased activation of motor neurons that is psychologically based
  72. neuromuscular fatigue
    depletion of acetylcholine in presynaptic terminal
  73. motor unit
    • motor neuron and all muscle cells it innervates
    • 1 motor neuron can terminate on many muscle cells
  74. delicate precise movements
    single motor unit may be composed of as few as a dozen motor fibers
  75. powerful coarse movements
    single motor unit may contain 1500-2000 muscle fibers
  76. motor unit recruitment
    • for weak contraction of whole muscle only one or a few skeletal motor units are activated
    • for stronger contractions additional skeletal units are recruited
  77. muscle metabolism during rest
    • resting condition (lots of O2)
    • optimal level of ATP production in mitochondria
    • atp can posphorylate creatine
    • atp can make glycogen
    • atp can make atp
  78. muscle metabolism during moderate exercise
    creatine phosphate utilized to make atp to allow powerstrokes
  79. creatine phosphate pathway
    • 5x> than ATP in rested muscle available immediately and quickly donated
    • depleted first minute of exercise
    • source from meats in diet also creatin supplements
  80. oxidative phosphorylation
    etc makes atp from the kreb cycle products when o2 are present

    FADH, NADH

    red muscle is red due to the hemoglobin and the blood
  81. glycolysis
    • glucose is broken down into pyruvate creating 2 ATP and NAD+
    • when 02 is present it moves into kreb cycle
    • when no O2 is present lactic acid is created

    white muscle
  82. during exercise
    • creatine phosphate stores reduced
    • lactate accumulation
    • glycogen stores reduced
  83. after exercise
    • repay oxygen debt
    • make more CP
    • amount of oxygen required during resting period to resor muscle to normal conditions
  84. how many fiber types do motor units have
    1
  85. oxidative red fibers
    • dark meat
    • slow twitch
    • high in myoglobin
    • edurance muscle fibers because they are very resistant to fatigue and injuries
    • power production is complarably low
  86. glycolitic white fibers
    • white meat
    • fast twitch
    • larger and stronger than oxidative muscle fibers
    • these fibers have a high capacity for glycolytic activity
    • high force output
    • more contractile units lot more tension
  87. oxidative type I
    • specialized for maintaining low intensity contractions over time without fatigue (those of back and leg to support weight of body against force of gravity, for endurance activities
    • posture
    • low atpase activity, high resitance to fatigue, high oxidative phosphorylation activity, lots of mitochondria and capillaries, high myoglobin, red
  88. fast oxidative type IIA
    • resistant to fatigue but < slow oxidative middle distance running and swimming
    • high atpase activity, intermediate resistance to fatigue, high oxidative phosphorylation, intermediate enzymes for anaerobic glycolysis, many mitochondria, many capillaries, red, intermediate glycogen content
  89. fast glycolityc Type IIB
    • within arm muscles for performing rapid forceful movements
    • athletes in power and sprint events
    • high atpase activity, low resistance to fatigue, low oxidative phosphorylation, high enzymes for anaerobic glycolysis, few mitochondria and capillaries, low myoglobin, white, high glycogen content

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