bio test 3

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lacythecoolest
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bio test 3
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2012-04-18 15:52:24
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bio 130 test notes
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  1. 1 basic set of chromosomes
    genome
  2. pairs of homologous chromosomes
    Diploid
  3. 1 set of chromosomes
    Haploid
  4. Homologous Chromosomes
    Same size and type
  5. receipes for chocolate chip cookies-all make the same, just small variations
    homologous chromosomes
  6. * sexual reproduction
    * reduces chromosome number by half
    * wider variety
    Mieosis
  7. What is the end result of mieosis?
    4 haploid cells
  8. 3 life cycles
    • 1. gametic
    • 2. zygotic
    • 3. sporic
  9. * animals
    * algea
    * plants are not involved in this life cycle
    gametic
  10. * alternation of generations
    sporic
  11. diploids make haploids
    haploids have sex and make diploids
    Sporic
  12. * fertilization before meiosis
    * algea
    * fungus
    zygotic
  13. failure to seperate chromosomes properly
    nondisjunction
  14. gain or loss of a chromosome
    aneuploidy
  15. extra sets of chromosomes
    polyploidy
  16. Aneuploidy in humans
    Down's syndrome
  17. polyploidy in plants
    used to enhance
  18. When are polyploidy plants fertile?
    if they have an even amount
  19. What common fruit is a sterile polyploid?
    bananas
  20. 2 types of polyploids
    • 1. autopolyploidy
    • 2. allopolyploidy
  21. * genome duplication
    * potato, watermelon
    Autopolyploidy
  22. * hybrids of two or more species
    * followed by chromosomes doubling
    * canola, cotton, wheat
    Allopolyploidy
  23. Can use this chemical to make plants fertile
    colchicine
  24. how traits are passed down to off spring
    transimission genetics
  25. * regulation of genes
    * how genes work
    Molecular genetics
  26. vaiation owithin a population
    population genetics
  27. * genetic make up of an organism
    * genetic potential
    genotype
  28. * "appearance" of an organism
    * determined by genes as influenced by the environment
    * can be physical or biochemical
    Phenotype
  29. * specific characteristic
    * unit of heredity that determines a trait
    * molecular level, area that carries a trait
    Gene
  30. * Different form of a gene
    * the different possible variaties of a gene
    Allele
  31. What the most alleles at a time per organism?
    2
  32. if both alleles are the same
    homozygous
  33. if alleles are different
    heterozygous
  34. * 1st to come up w/physical evidence that genes are on chromosomes
    * found that some genes can move-jumping genes
    Barbara McClintock
  35. * Published "Experiments in Plant Hybridization"
    * pea experiments
    Johann (Gregor) Mendel
  36. Why was the pea a good choice for Mendel?
    • * Structure of flower
    • -self pollenate and X pollenate w/others
    • * Traits are easily recognizable
    • * Pure lines/True Breeding
    • -homozygous
  37. 4 types of crosses
    • monohybrid
    • dihybrid
    • trihybrid
    • test cross
  38. parents have one trait
    monohybrid
  39. 2 different traits crossed
    Dihybrid
  40. 3 different traits crossed
    trihybrid
  41. unsure if homozygous or hterozygous
    test cross
  42. * trait genetic material like a fluid
    Blending Theory
  43. What were Mendels Conclusions?
    • 1. Principle of Unit Characters
    • -Traits are determined by "factors"(genes)
    • -don't blend
    • 2. Principle of Dominance
    • -one factor(allele) may mask another
    • 3. Principle of Segregation
    • -factors segregate during reproduction
    • -meiosis
    • 4. Principle of Independent Assortment
    • -factors controlling a different traits segregate independently
  44. traits are determined by "factors" (genes)
    -don't blend
    Principle of Unit Characters
  45. One fact(allele) may mask another
    Principle of Dominance
  46. Factors segregate during reproduction
    -meiosis
    Principle of Segregation
  47. Factors controlling different traits segregate independently
    Principle of Independent Assortment
  48. genes on the same chromosomes
    Linkage
  49. part of DNA that gets copied
    transcription
  50. front part of gene where copying starts via RNA polymerase
    Promoter
  51. Regulates by either helping or hindering promoters
    Proteins
  52. What part does RNA polymerase slides down
    Transcription Bubble
  53. Place where RNA polymerase stops
    Terminator
  54. direction of transcription
    down stream
  55. * part of mRNA between leader and trailer
    coding region
  56. What has to be processed in eukaryotes?
    mRNA
  57. introns removed from mRNA strand
    spliced
  58. spliced process:
    • * ribosomes catalyzes strand
    • * leaves exons to be spliced
  59. What is the mRNA after it's been spliced?
    mature mRNA
  60. What does the Gcap and poly-A tail do for mRNA?
    prevents degration of message
  61. what is poly-A tail?
    bunch of A's at the end
  62. how many nucleotides represent 1 amino acid?
    3
  63. how many bases in mRNA equals 1 codon?
    3
  64. How many possible combos of mRNA is in a codon?
    64
  65. codon=
    3 different bases in mRNA that represent 1 amino acid
  66. how many codons and bases does 1000 amino acids represent?
    • 1000 codons
    • 3000 bases
  67. How many different amino acids does proteins have?
    20
  68. how many different nucleotides does DNA/RNA have?
    4
  69. Start codon
    • AUG
    • methlymine
  70. stop codon
    UAA, UAG, UGA
  71. what happens if there's a shift in reading DNA
    mutation
  72. these have 2 different speeds: 60 and 40
    ribosomes
  73. type of RNA copied from DNA and decodes messages
    tRNA
  74. What is the most expensive process?
    Protein synthesis
  75. What energy is used in protein synthesis?
    ATP & GTP
  76. What can turn on or off transcription or translation?
    Temperature
  77. bacteria in body
    uhome
  78. What is the gram stain used for?
    to determine if the bacteria cell wall is thick or thin
  79. bacteria cell wall material
    pepticloglycan
  80. amino acids + amino sugars
    pepticlogylcan~bacteria cell wall
  81. list the shapes of bacteria
    • * bacillius
    • * coccus
    • * spirillium
    • * spirochete
  82. what shape is lymes disease?
    spirochete
  83. How do bacteria move?
    flagellum
  84. size of bacteria
    1-5 um
  85. how do bacteria replicate?
    binary fission
  86. what consists of bacteria?
    1 circular chromosome and plasmids
  87. membrane that detects food or harmful chemicals in bacteria
    chemotaxis
  88. * bacteria suvival trick
    * escape pod-when they run out of food, ect
    endosporic
  89. where is the stop codon?
    tRNA
  90. chain of amino acids
    polypeptide
  91. What happens to the polypeptide?
    folding, then is a protein
  92. proteins that help baby proteins fold up correctly
    chaperone proteins
  93. change is DNA sequence, hertiable change, can be passed on to the next generation
    mutations
  94. single base-pair substitution
    * A changed to G
    Point Mutation
  95. What could happen with a point mutation?
    active site could be changed
  96. If amino acid codes for more than one sequence
    silent mutation
  97. addition or deletion of 1 or 2 base pairs
    frameshift mutation
  98. What happens with framshift mutations?
    • big changes
    • shortens=trunkaded
  99. What happens with framshift mutations with introns?
    nothing because they are removed
  100. polymerase might put in wrong letter/bases
    repeated bases trip up polymerase
    spontaneous/random error of a mutation
  101. outside effects polymerase which causes a mutation
    induced cause
  102. What could cause a mutation where bases pair incorrectly?
    chemicals
  103. What causes a mutation where theres damages to stretches of DNA?
    • UV Light
    • thymine dimers
  104. fuse together, one base instead of 2
    polymerase cannot read
    thymine dimers
  105. cells go through programmed death
    sun burn
  106. classified by relatedness
    -based on shared features
    Cladistics
  107. shared ancestor
    Clade
  108. what do the nodes represent in cladistics?
    common anescestor
  109. shared derived character in cladistics
    branch
  110. exchange of plasmids
    genetic variability in bacteria
  111. bacterias ribosome speed
    70S
  112. What breaks peptidoglycan?
    penicillin and amoxicillin
  113. what messes up protein synthesis by sticking to the 70S ribosomes of bacteria?
    strephtomyacin
  114. WHat color is gram +
    purple which = thick cell wall
  115. What color is Gram -?
    pink which = thin CW
  116. How do autotroph bacteria synthesis nutrients?
    w/CO2
  117. binary fission rate for bacteria
    3 divisions/hour
  118. made with amino acids & sugars
    capsules
  119. Anthrax & Botox
    endospore formers
  120. Bio Control agents
    used against gyspy moths
    harmless to humans and earth
    endospore formers
  121. can be transferred btwn bacteria
    can be used as cloning vectors
    plasmids
  122. keep something out
    degrade DNA
    restriction enzyme
  123. parts that don't have a partner base
    cologase seals it up
    sticky ends
  124. Rhizobium bacterium uses this to benefit its host
    nitrogen fixation
  125. breaks down pectin cell wall in food
    pectobacterium
  126. makes fruits and vegetables unsalabe bc its unattractive
    leaf spots
  127. artifical snow made from bacterial proteins
    causes frost bite on plants
    snomax
  128. tumefaciens causes tumor growths on plants
    crushes xylem and phloem with too much ausin and cytochrome
    crown gall
  129. which RNA has the anitcode?
    tRNA
  130. tumor inducing
    Ti Plasmid
  131. How does Ti plasmid work?
    • bacteria cuts out DNA
    • goes into mucleus
    • opines food for agam bacteria
    • auxin and cyto involved
  132. Whats the benefits of Ti Plasmids?
    intro. transgenic plants
  133. Ti cut with restriction enzyme
    combind with desired gene
    then put back in
    Recombinant Plasmid
  134. What process makes plants glow?
    GFP recombinant plasmid
  135. non-cellular infectious entity
    made of mucleic acid and protein
    non-living
    virus
  136. What is used to see viruses
    eletron microscope
  137. viruses nucleic acid variations
    • RNA or DNA
    • single or double stranded for either
  138. how can viruses multiply?
    only with a living cell
  139. How does viruses multiply
    takes over cell and diverts it to their function
  140. studies viruses
    virologist
  141. size of viruses
    10-300 nm
  142. what can be crystallized and still be infectious?
    viruses
  143. smallest known virus
    chlamydia
  144. first discovered virus
    tobacco mosaic virus
  145. coat of virus
    capsid
  146. protein units
    protomers
  147. describe the shape of Icosahedron
    20 equal sides, somewhat round
  148. how do viruses get a double lipid envelope?
    viruses encoded proteins from a host
  149. 2 types of influenza Virus protein spikes
    • hemagglutinin
    • neuraminidase
  150. How many types of hemagglutinin are there?
    13
  151. how many types of neuraminidase are there?
    9
  152. H1N1
    Spanish flu=1918
  153. H5N1
    bird flu
  154. weird shaped viruses with head and tail with fibers used to inject in bacteria
    bacteriophage
  155. targets cell wall or ribosomes in bacteria
    antibiotics
  156. * infectious RNA molecule
    * transmitted by insects
    * only 250 bases
    * do not encode proteins
    viroids
  157. proteinaceous infectious particle
    preons
  158. What causes brain degenerative diseases?
    • preons
    • abnormal PRP protein
  159. How do preons work?
    • the abnormal prp protein connects with a normal protein and changes it shape
    • this causes plaques in the brain
  160. Some examples of PRP protein diseases
    • Mad Cow Disease
    • CWD-infected deer up north
  161. molds
    mushrooms
    yeasts
    fungi
  162. how many species are there of fungi?
    100,000 + more
  163. study of Fungi
    Mycology
  164. * Eukaryotic
    * Chitin cell wall
    * heterotropic
    * stores glycogen
    Fungi
  165. what does chitin contain
    amino sugars
  166. How do fungi eat?
    • they secrete enzymes to outside of a cell
    • then absorb cell contents/nutrients
  167. colony of filaments
    grows circularly
    mycelium
  168. 2 types of filaments
    • mycelium
    • Hypha
  169. single strand of mycelium
    turgor pressure causes growth at tip
    hypha filament
  170. 2 types of hypha filament
    • septum
    • coenocytic hyphae
  171. partitions of hypha filaments
    septate hypha
  172. no partitions
    stream of protoplasm can be seen
    coenocytic hyphae
  173. another name for fungi heterotophs
    decomposants
  174. How do fungi reproduce?
    • by spores
    • single cell or clump
  175. asexual fungi preform
    mitosis
  176. sexual fungi preform
    • meiosis
    • -zygotic
    • dikaryotic
  177. the phase that after mating and makes 2 seperate haploid nuclei
    -only for fungi
    dikaryotic
  178. how can fungi spores be dispersed?
    by air or water
  179. helps plants grow via symbiosis
    endophytes
  180. an example of an endophyte
    ascomycetes
  181. what kind of human foods are made from fungi?
    • soy sauce
    • blue cheese
    • beer/wine
    • mushrooms
  182. fake meat from fungi
    mycoprotein
  183. drugs from fungi
    • penicillin
    • citric acid
    • beano
    • pectinases
    • glucoamylase
  184. what kind of fungi are stone washed jeans from?
    bioinsectisides
  185. fungi that disperses spores via rain knocking them out of the packets
    birdsnest
  186. fungi that attracts insects with its foul smell and the spores are dispersed that way
    stinkhorn
  187. sticky fungi spores that get transferred via beetles
    Dutch Elm Fungus
  188. the fungi that digests itself and disperses 30,000 spores per second
    Inky
  189. type of fungi that disperses spores via explosive discharge towards light
    • pilobolus
    • sphaerobolus
  190. bad fungi found in human and dog lungs
    blastomycosis
  191. *mycellium, coenocytic hyphea
    *cell wall - cellulose
    * diploid
    * gamete mieosis
    * aquatic
    * asexual repro-zoospore
    Lichens
  192. saphrotrophic
    good at breaking down dead material
  193. What kingdom is Lichens?
    protistia
  194. nutrients from living organisms
    pathogens
  195. 2 types of flagella lichens have:
    • *whip-lash
    • * tinsel
  196. related to each have simular structures different species
    heterochond
  197. sexual spore
    resting spore
    oospore
  198. diploid and haploid are related to what sexual type?
    sexual, meosis
  199. disease that wiped out potato crop
    late blight
  200. myxomycota
    heterotrophs
    saptrotrophs
    plasmodial slime molds
  201. looks like scrambled eggs bc
    -no cell wall
    - mobile
    - phagocytosis
    plasmodium
  202. protoplasmic streaming of plasmodiums
    -helps gets nutrients
    reverse flow mechanism
  203. whole body of the slime mold turns into spores
    aethalium
  204. * karyogamy
    * myxamodebae
    * plasmogamy
    * zyhote
    * Sporangium
    * fruiting body
    * plasmodium
    * spores
    slime mold life cycle
  205. * junk drawer
    * don't know how they reproduce
    deutro
  206. creates most of lichen body
    mycobiont
  207. does photosynthesis for the lichen
    photobiont
  208. body of the lichen, any organism
    thallus
  209. algea growing within the lichen help with what?
    growing in certain places, like rocks
  210. ball that has both of the reprod. for the lichen
    -erupts from surface, floats and starts a new lichen
    soredia
  211. fungus asexual reproduction:
    conidia
  212. fungus reproduction sexual
    ascospores in apothecia
  213. open cup, disk like structure
    apothecia
  214. food for raindeer
    lichen
  215. 1st organisms that can colonized a new surface, or habitat
    *makes it more suitable environment for other organisms
    pioneer organisms
  216. what organism can be used to monitor the environment for bad chemicals?
    lichen
  217. what organism is used from litmus paper
    lichen

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