Cestodes

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Author:
kris10leejmu
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141787
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Cestodes
Updated:
2012-03-17 22:20:37
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Lab Tech
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Lab Tech
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  1. Do all cestodes require an intermediate host?
    yes
  2. How long of a period of time do tapeworms live in the intestinal tract?
    years
  3. What are the signs of a species having a tapeworm?
    • subtle signs
    • scooting
    • tapeworm doesn't interfere with blood supply, only absorbs food
  4. Are cestodes hermaphrodites?
    yes
  5. Define scolex.
    attachement to host (head)
  6. Define strobila.
    independent, progressive maturing reproductive units (chain)
  7. Define proglottids.
    developing segments (individual segments)
  8. What kind of life cycle do cestodes have (direct or indirect)?
    indirect
  9. Do cestodes have mouths?
    no mouth, nutrients are absorbed
  10. Describe the body of a cestode.
    • long
    • segmented
    • flattened
  11. Which are the more mature, the proglottids near the scolex or the ones at the distal end?
    near the scolex
  12. Describe the life cycle of a cestode.
    • egg/segment is ingested
    • egg hatches in intestines of intermediate host
    • crosses intestinal wall and migrates
    • intermediate host is ingested by definitive host
    • matures to adult in the small intestines of definitive host
  13. Cestodes encysts in tissues as _____.
    • cysticercus
    • cysticercoid (if IH is an arthropod)
  14. What is the DH and IH of Taenia taeniaeformis?
    • DH: cat
    • IH: rat
  15. What is the DH and IH of Taenia taeniaeformis?
    • DH: dog
    • IH: rabbit
  16. What is the DH and IH of Taenia saginata?
    • DH: human
    • IH: cattle
  17. What is the DH and IH of Taenia solium?
    • DH: human
    • IH: pig
  18. Where does Taenia taeniaeformis infect in cats and rodents?
    • cats: small intestines
    • rodents: liver
  19. What happens to cats when they get Taenia taeniaformis?
    • usually not harmed
    • possibly diarrhea or constipation, pot-bellied appearance in young animals
  20. What happens to rodents when they get Taenia taeniaformis?
    • uaully nonpathogenic
    • cysts may be associated with hepatic sarcomas (liver tumors)
  21. What is the treatment for Taenia taeniaformis?
    • Praziquantel
    • Epsiprantel
    • Fenbendazole
    • Niclosamide
  22. How do we diagnose Taenia taeniaeformis?
    • proglottids are seen in feces or perianal region
    • can usually see eggs on a fecal
  23. What is the infection site for Taenia pisiformis for dogs?
    small intestines
  24. What is the infection site for Taenia pisiformis for rabbits?
    cysticerci attached to the visera of the peritoneal cavity
  25. What are the clinical signs for dogs with Taenia pisiformis?
    usually none
  26. What are the clinical signs for rabbits with Taenia pisiformis?
    • light infections can cause digestive disturbances
    • heavy infections may cause severe liver damage and death
  27. How do you diagnose Taenia pisiformis?
    • proglottids
    • Taenia egg on fecal float
  28. What is the infection site for Taenia saginata in humans?
    small intestines
  29. What is the infection site for Taenia saginata in cattle?
    throughout musculature, heart, tongue, diaphragm
  30. What are the clinical signs of humans who have Taenia saginataa?
    • usually nonpathogenic
    • may include diarrhea, abdominal pain
  31. What are the clinical signs of cattle with Taenia saginata?
    • nonpathogenic
    • "measly beef"
  32. How do we control the spread of Taenia saginata?
    • meat inspection
    • cook beef to at least 57 degrees celcius
    • freeze beef at -8 degrees to -10 degrees celcius for 10 days
    • aboid sludge as fertilizer on pastures
    • provide bathroom facility for feed lot workers
    • treat human infections
  33. What is the infection site for Taenia solium in humans?
    • small intestine (adults)
    • muscles
    • eye
    • CNS (cysticerci)
  34. What is the infection site for Taenia solium in pigs?
    • skeletal muscles
    • tongue
    • heart
    • diaphragm (cysticerci)
  35. How does a human get Taenia solium?
    eating uncooked pork
  36. What happens if a human ingests Taenia eggs?
    • they become the intermediate host and will have symptoms like...
    • neurological symptoms
    • uveitis
    • retinitis or blindness
  37. Who is the definitive host for Dipylidium caninum?
    • dogs
    • cats
    • humans
  38. What is the intermediate host of Dipylidium caninum?
    flea
  39. How does the definitive host get Dipylidium caninum?
    eating the intermediate host (flea)
  40. What is the prepatent period for Dipylidium caninum?
    2 - 3 weeks
  41. Where do Dipylidium caninum infect in the definitive host?
    small intestines
  42. What is the treatment for Dipilydium caninum?
    • Praziquantel
    • Epsiprantel
    • must treat for fleas or can be reinfected in <3 weeks
  43. What is the defnitive host for Echinococcus granulosus?
    Canids (domestic dogs)
  44. What is the intermediate host for Echinococcus granulosus?
    • sheep
    • swine
    • ruminants
    • moose
    • deer
    • humans
  45. What is the infection site in the definitive host for Echinococcus granulosus?
    small intestine
  46. What is the infection site in the intermediate host for Echinococcus granulosus?
    • lungs
    • liver
    • CNS
    • kidney
    • pancreas
    • connective tissue
  47. Does Echinococcus granulosus cause problems in definitive hosts?
    no
  48. Does Echinococcus granulosus cause problems in intermediate hosts?
    yes
  49. What is the life cycle of Echinococcus granulosus?
    • gravid proglottids passed in feces
    • eggs are ingested by IH
    • penetrate intestinal vasculature to the liver or lungs
    • hydatid cysts develop slowly (~ 5 months)
    • dog ingests viscera of IH then the scolex attaches and develops in small intestine
  50. What are the clinical signs for Echinococcus granulosus?
    • canids: usually nonpathogenic
    • IH: usually none, older animals may show slight signs over time
  51. Are Echinococcus granulosus zoonotic?
    yes
  52. What can Echinococcus granulosus cause in humans?
    Hydatid Cyst Disease
  53. What is Hydatid Cyst Disease?
    • humans are infected with the hydatid cyst by ingesting eggs from canid feces on vegetables or fruits or from handling infected dogs.
    • impairs respiratory efficiency, causes anaphylaxis from rupture of cysts, spontaneous fracture of long bones, organ dysfunction
  54. What is the treatment for Hydatid Cyst Disease?
    • no treatment
    • surgery
  55. What is the definitive host for Anoplocephala perfoliata?
    horse
  56. What is the intermediate host of Anoplocephala perfoliata?
    grass mites
  57. What does Anoplocephala perfoliata infected in the body?
    • posterior small intestines
    • ileocecocolic junction
  58. What is the life cycle of Anoplocephala perfoliata?
    • eggs and segments passed in feces
    • eaten by oribatid (grass) mite
    • cysticercoid in mite for 2 months
    • mites ingested when horse grazes
    • adults develop near ileocecalcolic junction in horse
  59. What is the clinical signs for Anoplocephala perfoliata?
    • ulcerate mucosa
    • may obstruct
    • intussusceptions
    • cecal perforation and peritonitis
  60. What is the treatment for Anoplocephala perfoliata?
    • benzimidazoles (fenbendazole, albendazole)
    • febantel
  61. What is Moniezia?
    ruminant tapeworm
  62. How big can Moniezia get?
    adults up to 100 cm
  63. What do the eggs of moniezia look like?
    somewhat triangular or square
  64. What is the definitive host for Moniezia?
    • sheep
    • cattle
  65. What is the intermediate host for Moniezia?
    oribatid (grass) mites
  66. What is the infection site for Moniezia?
    small intestine
  67. What is the treatment for Moniezia?
    • fenbendazole
    • albendazole
  68. What is Hymenolepis spp?
    human tapeworms
  69. What is the definitive host for Hymenolepis spp?
    primarily rodents, also dogs and humans
  70. What is the intermediate host for Hymenolepis spp?
    • fleas
    • flour beetles
  71. What is the infection site for Hymenolepis spp?
    small intestines
  72. What is the life cycle of Hymenolepis spp?
    • eggs in feces are eaten by insects (flea, beetle)
    • cysticercoid develops in the insect
    • insects ingested by definitive host (rodent, man, dog)
  73. What are the clinical signs of Hymenolepis spp?
    • Humans: enteritis, anorexia, headaches, anal pruritus, abdominal distress
    • Lab animals: very little pathogenesis, but interferes with research
  74. How are Hymenolepis spp diagnosed?
    eggs in feces
  75. What is the treatment for Hymenolepis spp?
    Praziquantel

  76. What end of the Cestode is this?
    scolex

  77. What part of the cestode is this?
    scolex

  78. Name the parts of this cestode.
    • scolex (head)
    • strobila (body)
    • proglottids (segments)

  79. What is this?
    proglottids

  80. What is this?
    Taenia egg

  81. Life Cycle of Taenia taeniaeformis

  82. Life Cycle of Taenia pisiformis

  83. Life Cycle of Taenia saginata

  84. What is this?
    Dipilydium segments (look like cucumber seeds inside)

  85. What kind of cestode is this?
    Echinococcus

  86. What is this?
    Echinococcus granulosus egg

  87. What is this?
    Hydatid cyst

  88. Life Cycle of Anoplocephala perfoliata

  89. What are these?
    Anoplocephala eggs

  90. What is this?
    Moniezia egg

  91. Life Cycle of Hymenolepis spp

  92. What is this?
    Hymenolepis spp egg

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