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2012-03-22 22:15:56
Medical Terminology Health Professionals 6E JCCC AAC130 Respiratory Lung diseases

Ch7 Medical Terminology - PART 4 Respiratory System - Lung Diseases
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  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome
    1. Not a specific disease - is sudden onset of severe lung dysfunction affecting both lungs

    2. Makes breathing very difficult.

    • 3. Syndrome caused by:
    • .....a. Trauma (injury)
    • .....b. Sepsis (systemic infection)
    • .....c. Diffuse (wide-spread) pneumonia
    • .....d. Shock
  2. Atelectasis
    • Collapse of part of all of a lung caused by:
    • .....a. Blockage of air passages
    • .....b. Very shallow breathing
  3. Collapsed lung
    Lung is unable to expand to receive air due to a pneumothorax or atelectasis
  4. Pulmonary edema
    Accumulation of fluid in lung tissues
  5. Pneumorrhagia
    Bleeding from the lungs
  6. Tuberculosis (TB)
    1. Infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosiis

    2. Usually attacks lungs, but can also affect other parts of the body

    3. TB occurs most commonly in individuals whose immune systems are weakened by another condition.

    4. A healthy individual can carry TB without showing symptoms of the illness
  7. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis
    Dangerous form of tuberculosis where germs have become resistant to effect of primary TB drugs
  8. Pneumonia
    1. Serious infection or inflammation of the lungs in which smallest bronchioles & alveoli fill with pus & other liquid

    • 2. There are 2 types of pneumonia named for parts of the lung affected:
    • .....a. Bronchopneumonia
    • .....b. Lobar pneumonia

    3. As many as 30 causes of pneumonia identified

    • 4. Most common causative agents are:
    • .... a. Inhaled substances
    • .....b. Bacteria
    • .....c. Fungi
    • .....d. Viruses
  9. Bronchopneumonia
    Localized form of pneumonia that often affects the bronchioles & surroundig alveoli.
  10. Lobar pneumonia
    Affects larger areas of lungs, often including one or more lobes
  11. Double pneumonia
    1. Lobar pneumonia involving both lungs

    2. Usually a form of bacterial pneumonia
  12. Aspiration pneumonia
    Can occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
  13. Aspiration
    (As used here) means inhaling or drawing a foreign substance into the upper respiratory tract.
  14. Bacterial pneumonia
    1. Often caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    2. Only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination.
  15. Mycoplasma pneumonia (walking pneumonia)
    1. Milder, but longer lasting, form of the disease caused by the bcteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    2. Called walking pneumonia because the patient is not beridden.
  16. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
    1. Opportunistic infection caused by the fungus Pneumocystis carinii.

    2. Often associated with AIDS.
  17. Viral pneumonia
    1. Caused by several different types of viruses

    2. Accounts for approximately 50% of all pneumonias
  18. Interstitial lung disease
    1. Group of almost 200 diseases that cause inflammation & scarring of alveoli & their supporting structures.

    2. These lung conditions lead to a reduction of oxygen being transferred to the blood

    3. Many connective tissues diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis & lupus can cause this disease.

    4. Also caused by environmental & occupational toxins that are inhaled.
  19. Interstitial fibrosis
    Another name for inflammation & thickening of the walls fo the alveoli.
  20. Interstitial
    Means pertaining to between, but not within, the parts of a tissue.
  21. Fibrosis
    Condition in which normal tissue is replaced by fibrotic (hardened) tissue.
  22. Pneumoconiosis
    Fibrosis of the lung tissues caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after prolonged environmental or occupational contact.
  23. Anthracosis
    (coal miner's pneumoconiosis or black lung disease)
    Caused by coal dust in the lungs
  24. Asbestosis
    1. Caused by asbestos particles in the lungs

    2. Usually occurs after working with asbestos.
  25. Byssinosis (brown lung disease)
    1. Caused by inhaling cotton dust into lungs

    2. Usually occurs after working in a textile factory.
  26. Silicosis
    1. Caused by inhaling silica dust into lungs.

    • 2. Usually occurs after working in occupations including:
    • .....a. Foundry work
    • .....b. Quarrying
    • .....c. Cereamics
    • .....d. Glass work
    • .....e. Sandblasting
  27. Pulmonary fibrosis
    1. Formation of scar tissue in the lung.

    2. Causes decreased lung capacity & increased difficulty in breathing

    • 3. This condition can be caused by:
    • .....a. Autoimmune disorders
    • .....b. Infections
    • .....c. Dust
    • .....d. Gases
    • .....e. Toxins
    • .....f. Some drugs
  28. Cystic fibrosis
    1. Genetic disorder

    2. Lungs & pancreas are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus.

    • 3. Treatment for cystic fibrosis includes:
    • .....a. Digestive enzymes to aid digestive system
    • .....b. Antibiotics to control lung infections
    • .....c. Postural drainage to allow gravity to help
    • .....d. Chest percussions to remove excess mucus
  29. Lung cancer
    1. Leading cause of cancer death in the United States.

    2. Condition in which cancer cells form in the tissues of the lung

    • 3. Important risk factors include:
    • .....a. Tobacco smoking
    • .....b. Inhaling second-hand smoke

    • 4. Two tests most commonly used to diagnose lung cancer are:
    • .....a. Chest x-rays
    • .....b. Sputum cytology
  30. Sputum cytology
    Procedure in which a sample of mucus is coughed up from the lungs & examined under a microscope to detect cancer cells.