Chem II exam II.txt

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Chem II exam II.txt
2012-03-15 14:42:39
Chem II exam

Chem II exam II
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  1. _H (-)
    Exothermic, favorable, only spontaneous at LOW t
  2. _H (+)
    Endothermic, unfavorable, NONspontaneous at LOW T
  3. _S (+)
    More disorder, favorable, spontaneous at HIGH T
  4. _S(-)
    Less disorder, unfavorable, NONspontaneous at HIGH T
  5. _Srxn=
    ?nSproducts -?nSreactants = J/K
  6. _S: if more moles of gas are in PRODUCTS
    S increases
  7. _S: if more moles of gas are in REACTANTS
    S decreases
  8. T-ct (crossover temperature)
  9. if T-ct is (-)
  10. _Grxn = -RTln(K)
  11. Group 1A: O.N.
    +1 in all compoiunds
  12. Group 2A: O.N.
    +2 in all compounds
  13. Group 7A: O.N.
    Usually -1 in all compounds, EXCEPT with Oxygen
  14. Hydrogen O.N.
    +1 with nonmetals, -1 with metals and Boron
  15. Oxygen O.N.
    -2 in most compounds, -1 in peroxides X2O2
  16. Leo the lion goes GER
    loss of electrons is oxidation. gain of electrons is reduction
  17. oxidized then it
    lost electrons, reducing agent
  18. reduced then it
    gained electrons, oxidizing agent
  19. In acidic solutions, you will only be able to add:
    H+ or H20
  20. To balance oxygen:
    add 1 h20 to the side that needs the oxygen and 2H+s to the side that has enough oxygen atoms
  21. To balance hydrogen
    add 1 H+ to the side that needs the hydrogen
  22. In basic solutions
    convert remaining H+ to OH- by adding the same ammount of OH- to both sides
  23. Nonmetals oxides added to water
  24. Metal oxides added to water
  25. Nonmetal hydrides are
    Covalent and act as acids in solution HF
  26. Accross period table -> nonmetal hydrice acid strength
    increases because of an increase in electronegativity H20 < HF
  27. Down a group, nonmetal acid strength
    increases because of an increase in size of anion HF < HCL
  28. nonmetal hydrides acidiity trend:
    acid strength INCREASES from Left - Right & Top - Bottom; strongest nonmetal hydride compounds are bottom right of periodic table H2Se > PH3
  29. Metal Hydrides are
    ionic and act as bases
  30. for metal cations,
    the larger the charge, higher the acidity Al3+ > Mg2+
  31. if charge is similar
    the smaller the cation the higher the acidity
  32. Oxyacid trends contain:
    H, O, and a nonmetal
  33. Different number of oxygens in oxyacid trends:
    the more oxygen, the more acidic
  34. Same number of oxygens in oxyacid trends:
    depends on electronegativity, more electronegative, more acidic.
  35. Lewis acid
    accept pair of electrons
  36. Lewis base
    donate pair of electrons
  37. cations, multiple bonds, B, Be
    can accept electrons, lewis acids
  38. NH3, H20, anions -
    accept pair of electrons, lewis base