AP World- Ch. 28 Vocab

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butterfly67664
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AP World- Ch. 28 Vocab
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2012-03-19 17:57:32
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  1. Western Front
    Front established in World War I; generally along line from Belgium to Switzerland; featured trench warfare and horrendous casualties for all sides in the conflict.
  2. Archduke Ferdinand
    heir to Austro-Hungarian throne; his assassination precipitated the events that developed into World War I
  3. Sarajevo
    capital of the Bosnian province in Austria-Hungary; site of Ferdinand's assassination
  4. Nicholas II
    last emperor of Russia whose oorm military and political decistions led to this downfall and Russia's loss ing the war; he and kaiser whilhemls II madde many moves tahta led to the start of the war
  5. Gallipoli
    Peninsula south of Istanbul; site of decisive 1915 Turkish Victory over Australian and New Zealand forces under British command during WWI.
  6. Armenians
    Genocide- Assualt carried out by mainly Turkish military forces against Armenian population in Anatolia in 1915; over a million Armenians perished and thousands fled to Russia and the Middle East.
  7. Eastern Front
    Most mobile of the fronts established during World War I; lacked trench warfare because of length of front extending from the Baltic to southern Russia; after early successes, military defeats led to downfall of the tsarist government in Russia
  8. Adolf Hitler
    Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to his suicide in 1945; created a strongly centralized state in Germany; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive foreign policy leading to World War II; responsible for attempted genocide of European Jews
  9. Georges Clemenceau
    French prime minister in last years of WWI and during Versailles Conference of 1919; pushed for heavy reparations from Germans.
  10. David Lloyd George
    Prime minister of GB who headed a coalition government through much of WWI and the turbulent years thta followed
  11. League of Nations
    International diplomatic and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I; one of the chief goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States in the peace negotiations; the United States was never a member.
  12. Indian National Congress Party
    Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians; originally centered in cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; became political party in 1885; focus of nationalist movement in India; governed through most of postcolonial period
  13. Morley-Minto reforms
    Provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-Indian legislative councils
  14. Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
    Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial numbers of elected Indians; passed in 1919
  15. Rowlatt Act
    Placed severe restrictions on key Indian civil rights such as freedom of the press; acted to offset the concessions granted under Montagu-Chelmsford reforms of 1919
  16. Mohandis Gandhi
    Led sustained all-India campaign for independence from British empire after WWI; stressed non-violent but aggressive mass protest
  17. Satyagraha
    Literally, "truth-force"; Gandhi's policy of nonviolent opposition to British colonialism
  18. Lord Cromer
    British adviser in khedival Egypt; pushed for economic reforms that reduced but failed to eliminate the debts of the khedival regime.
  19. Effendi
    Class of prosperous business and professional urban families in khedival Egypt; as a class generally favored Egyptian independence.
  20. Dinshawai incident
    Clash between British soldiers and Egyptian villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidentally shot by army officers hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement
  21. Ataturk
    Also known as Mustafa Kemal; leader of Turkish republic formed in 1923; reformed Turkish nation using Western models
  22. Hussein
    Military ruler of Iraq; led Iraq in ten-year war with Iran; attempted to annex Kuwait to Iraq in 1990; defeated by coalition of American, European, and Arab forces in 1991 in Persian Gulf War.
  23. Mandates
    Governments entrusted to European nations in the Middle East in the aftermath of World War I; Britain occupied mandates in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine after 1922
  24. Balfour Declaration
    British minister's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine during World War I; issued in 1917
  25. Leon Pinsker
    European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land.
  26. Theodore Herzl
    Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state
  27. Alfred Dreyfus
    French Jew falsely accused of passing military secrets to the Germans; his mistreatment and exile to Devil's Island provided flashpoint for years of bitter debate between the left and right of Germany.
  28. World Zionist Organization
    Founded by Theodor Herzl to promote Jewish migration to and settlement in Palestine to form a Zionist state.
  29. Wafd Party
    Egyptian nationalist party that emerged after an Egyptian delegation was refused a hearing at the Versailles Treaty negotiations following World War I; led by Sa'd Zaghl[[auumlaut]]l; negotiations eventually led to limited Egyptian independence beginning in 1922
  30. Sa’d Zaghlul
    Leader of Egypt's nationalist Wafd party ; their negotiations with British led to limited Egyptian independence in 1922
  31. Marcus Garvey
    African American political leader, had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in 1920s-1930s
  32. W.E.B. DuBois
    African American political leader, had a major impact on emerging African nationalist leaders in 1920s-1930s
  33. Pan-African
    Organitzation that brought together intellectuals and political leaders from areas of Africa and African diaspora before and after WWI
  34. Negritude
    Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements
  35. Leopold Sedar Senghor
    One of the post- WWI writers of the negritude literaray movement that urged pride in African values

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