224 biol immunity

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224 biol immunity
2012-03-15 20:25:30
larson 224 immunity

for jennifer
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  1. Which leukocycle will stain with basic dyes
  2. which leukocyte will stain with acidic dyes
  3. which leukocyte will stain with neutral dyes
  4. which leukocyte will produce histamine and heprin? and what r those functions
    basophil HEPRINanticolagulant HISAMINE inflammation and allergies vasodialator
  5. what leukocyte will be the 1st to responf to a diesase
  6. which wbc will secrete lysomal enzymes(digestive enzymes
    neutrol phils
  7. what wbc forms pus
    neutrophil from dead neutrofragments and dead bacteria
  8. which leukocyte will increase during an allergic reaction?
  9. which wbc will be involved in antibody immunity
  10. which wbc will decrease inflammation and what compounds
    eosinophils using hisaminase
  11. what wbc wbc will leave blood and become macrophage
  12. what wbc will attract fibroblasts
    monocytes(helps isolate the infection
  13. antigen presenting cell
  14. what leukocyte would perform immunological surveillence
    nk lymphonocyte
  15. wbc invoved in cellular immunity
    lymphocyte t cells
  16. what wbc will fight parasitic infections?
  17. what wbc will be elevated in someone with a cronic infection
  18. which wbc will attack antigen antibody complexes
  19. which wbc will cause repiratory burst?
    neutrophil (produceh202 and attacks membrane of cell
  20. how do lymphatic capularies differ from blood capillaries
    are a dead end vessel. endothelial cells overlap.basement membrane incomplete r none exsistant.larger diameter.thinner walls.one way flow. lower resistance -lots of valves musclar compressin respiratory pump
  21. pressure in lymph and intersitual
    • If pressure in the intersitual fluid >pressure In capillary cells separate and fluid comes in. that fluid becomes lymph.
    • If pressure intestitial<capillary pressure,cells do not separate-nothing comes in
  22. lacteal
    is a lymphatic capillary that absorbs dietary fats in the villi of the small intestine.
  23. how lymphatic capillaries merge into large lymphatic vessels
  24. The trunks merge into 1) right lymphatic duct 2)thoratic duct*old lymph back to venous circulation*(as we are doing this we r making new lymph) the excess 3 liters from the venous system goes to the lympatic system causing lymph.
  25. what is the purpose of lympatic ducts?
    • 1)filter looking for pathogens
    • 2proliferation of lymphocytes
  26. Lymphatic vessels. Merge to
    Lymphatic trunks then merge to right lymphatic duct and thoracic duct brining back to venous circulation
  27. Where does lymph come from
    Extra fluid
  28. Whats the purpose off lymphatic ducts and how do they drain
    Bring old lymph back to venous circulation
  29. How does primary differ from secondary lymphatic organ?
    • Primary where cells become immunocommpetent
    • Secondary where immune response occurs
  30. Functions of lymph nodes
    • Filters lymph looking for pathogens,
    • Immune system activation proliferation of lymphocytes
  31. What is white pulp and red
    White pulp lymphocytes red pulp venous sinuses
  32. Understand the functions of the spleen
    Prolife lymphocyte"stores iron' stores platelets' produce rbc in infants,remove damaged and old rbc,easy to damage hard to repair
  33. Thymus functions
    T cells mature, produce thymmosin and thymopoetin for maturing tcells
  34. Thymus size
    Grows till puberty then it decreases in size
  35. Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue aka tonsils how many do we have
  36. Adenoids r known as what?
    Pharyngeal tonsil
  37. Which tonsils r most prone to infection
  38. Why r tonsils located there
    1st pathogen airborn responce
  39. Where r peyers patches located
    Distal small infection
  40. What r peyers patches functions
    Able to fight detect food born pathogens-collection of lymphocytes-similar structure in appendix
  41. What is the main goal of the 1st line of defense?
    To keep pathogens out
  42. How do the various components of 1st line of defense work?
    • Mucus :traps pathogens
    • Stomach acid:inhibits microbial growth lysosomal enzymes:sweat tears sweat:washes away pathogens
    • Hairs:respiratory pathogens
  43. How do macrophage different from microphage
    Neutrophil and eosinophil (smaller)
  44. What cells r macrophages
  45. What cells r fixed macrophages
    Perment resident of tissue. Microglia in cns. Dust cells:lungs. Free macrophages:continuously migrating
  46. What r the steps in phagocytic process
    • 1phagocytic cells binds to pathogen
    • 2phagocytic cell forms pseudopods to engulf pathogen
    • 3phagosome forms around pathogen
    • 4 phagosome merges with lysosome
    • 5enzymes digest pathogen
    • 6digested pathogen leaves phagocytic cell by exocytosis
  47. What cells perform immunological surveillance
    • 1nk cell reconizes abnormal cell and bounds by detecting marker cells
    • 2 golgi of nk shifts to face abnormal cell
    • 3 golgie secretes perforins in vesicles
    • 4 perforins create pores in membranes of abnormal cell and cell lysis occurs
  48. What cells perform immunological surveillance?
    Nk leukocytes
  49. Interferon whats the purpose
    Antiviral binds virus and prevents viral replication
  50. Whats the process of interferon1-3
    • 1 virus invades host cell and replicates
    • 2when virus enters cell,genes of production gets turned on
    • 3 host cell #1 makes interferon
  51. What process for interferon 4 to 5
    • 4Interferon binds to receptor on host 2
    • 5interferon binding activates production of antiviral proteins
  52. End result of completment activation
    1 enhances phagocytosis 2increase inflammation 3 initiates the membrane attack complex (mac) mac and proteins C5-C9 form pore channel in membrane Causes cell to lysis
  53. What r the cardinal signs of inflammation
  54. Basic process of inflammation
    • Neutrophils arrive from chemotaxis- neutrophils and monocytes phagoctosis-basophils histamine(vasodilator,increase permeability) and heparin anticoagulant
    • Increased blood flow allows more wbc to arrive-causing heat and redness
    • Monocytes-attract fibroblasts-create scar tissue
    • Pain from prostoglands-activate pain pathways
  55. Why do fevers occur
    • 1metabolic rate (10x to 1degree) immune reactions occur quicker
    • 2inhibits replication of bacteris
    • 3increase temp denatures proteins in bacterial membranes
  56. Fever temp
  57. Why r fever beneficial?
    Low grade temps can be good
  58. what is the purpose of antigen presentation?
    process antigen and presents to t cell
  59. what types of cells have mhc1
  60. On surface of all nucleated cells process nintercellular antigens
  61. types of antigens processed by MHC1
  62. If it is foreign-> cytotoxic t cell activated cell is killed
    If it is self->suppressor t cell activated cell is left alone
  63. what type of cells have mhc 2
  64. We see most on macrophages
  65. what kinda antigens do mhc produce
  66. Mostly on macrophages processes extra cellular antigens activates helper t cells
  67. cd8 reconizes what
  68. Cd8 on cytotoxic suppressor t cells
    -only recongizes MHC I
  69. cd4 reconizes
    CD4 on helper Tcells reconization MHCII only reconizes
  70. how r bcells senitized
  71. what activates b cells
    First part is sensitization where antigens bind to anti-bodies on b cell surface
  72. -sensitized b cell binds to helper Tcell
    Bcell divides
  73. igG
    -resistance agaqinst bacteria and viruses-able to cross placenta (HDNhemolytic disease in new born)*anti-d antibodies-some passive immunity mom->fetus
  74. iga
    IgAfound in body secretions saliva sweat breast milk,tears etc
  75. IgAfound in body secretions saliva sweat breast milk,tears etc
  76. igE
    causes hiatamine release-increased inflammation-allergic responses*for allergies
  77. igm
    IgM1st antibody secreted
  78. IgM1st antibody secreted
  79. igd
    IgD b cell sensitization
  80. primary responce
    Primary response is the 1st respone it takes 2weeks to reach peak typicaly and lasts IgM responds 1st,then 1gG *more servere symptoms and longer duration
  81. 2ndary response
    Peaks in 4 days memory cells activated produces massive amounts of antibodies *may not get sick if u do less severe. Activates memory b cells