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2012-03-15 17:05:55
224 blood

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    • author "nadiaessaqi"
    • tags "224 "
    • description "224"
    • fileName "blood.txt"
    • freezingBlueDBID -1.0
    • Functions of blood (transport)
    • *gas transport*O2 and CO2,nutrients from food,ions na+,k+,cl-,Ca2+,Mg2+,enzymes,waste products hormones
  1. functions of blood (regulation)
    osmotic pressure,ph,temp
  2. functions of blood (protection)
    blood loss,immune system-protects against pathogens(disease causing organisms)
  3. under what circumstances would you collect blood from an artery using an arterial stick which is the common artery
    (common to do radial using arterial stick) 02 content measure
  4. what are the advantages to collect blood from a vein
    1) easy to locate 2)lower pressure(seal sooner) 3)have thinner wall(easier to puncture)
  5. characteristics of blood (volume) and (ph)
    • volume females 4-5L males 5-6L
    • ph 7.35-7.45(slightly alkaline)
    • above 7.45alkosis
    • below 7.35acidosis
  6. chartacteristics of blood (body weight)(viscosity) (temp)
    • 8% of body weight is blood
    • 5-8 times more viscous than water
    • temp 38degreesC 100.4 F*blood is warmer than body*
  7. blood chartacteristics (hypovolemic) (hypervolemic)
    • hypovolemic:lowblood vol.(bleeding dehydration)
    • hypervolemic(due to over hydration and some blood disorders) *hyper less common*
  8. portion of blood composed of plasma
    55% of blood volume is plasma
  9. how much plasma is water
    91.5 percent is water is plasma
  10. what solutes would be found suspened in plasma?
    electrolyts=ions,nutrients,02 and co2,hormones,enzymes,metabolic wastes
  11. what does fibrinogen do?
    fibrinogen clots
  12. what plasma protein is part of the immune system?
    immunogolbins IgG IgA IgE IgD IgM spells GAMED
  13. what plasma protein controls most of the exchange?
    Albumins controls most of the exchange in the capillary
  14. Albumins carry what?
    fatty acids and steroid hormones
  15. Albumins are found in and determine most of what?
    found in egg whites and determine most of BCOP
    • metalioproteins-transport metal ions
    • apolipoproteins-fat transports
  17. what portion of blood is composed of formed elements
    45percent is composed of formed elements
  18. how many erythrocytes are in a microliter of blood
    4.8-5.4 million are in microliter of blood
  19. what r the percentages of the wbc's?
  20. what is a hemocytoblast?
    blood cell stem cell can differntiate into any blood cell
  21. what does colony forming units play in the development of formed elements?
    act as signaling molecule to direct differemtiation
  22. what precurser cells will give rise to elements?(megakaryoblast)
    megakaryocytes breaks up into thromocytes aka platelets
  23. what precurser cells will give rise to elements?(proerythroblast)
    mature into erythrocytes
  24. what precurser cells will give rise to elements? MYELOBLAST
    eosinophil, neutrophiler, basophil
  25. what precurser cells will give rise to elements? MONOBLAST
    monocytes aka macrophage
  26. what precurser cells will give rise to elements? LYPHOBLAST
  27. how is an agranulocte different from a granulocyte?
    • agranulocyte have no visual in cytoplasm
    • granulocytes have visual in cytoplasm
  28. granulocyte leukocytes
    eosinophil basophils neutrolphil
  29. agranual leukocytes
    monocytes and lymphocytes
  30. diapedesis is
    emigration process by which WBC leaves blood and moves into interstitial fluid
  31. how chemotaxis affect leukocytes
    chemical attraction to wbc
  32. selectins are?
    on endotheial cell act as an adhesian molecule to grab on wbc
  33. integrins are
    on WBC use them to tether to the endotheial cell and roll down surface
  34. how does the lack of nucleus affect erythrocytes?
    no dna no mitosis,dont make proteins,little no cell repair,no mitrochondria,use glycolysis to make atp (2 atp/glucose) *no mitro cause it would use all 02 to make energy*
  35. why the shape of rbc is important
    • donut biconcave disc
    • 1allows to stack on top
    • 2narrow area in the middle allows them to fold twist and bend 2 get thru small vessels
    • 3high surface area to volume ratio
  36. how many molecules of hemoglobin will each erythrocyte contain?
    250-280million hemoglobin molecules
  37. how many oxygen can a single hemoglobin bind?
    4 oxygen molecules hemoglobin carries
  38. which component of hemoglobin is composed of protein
    globin units is composed of protein
  39. which component of hemoglobin will give blood its color?
    heme gives blood its color
  40. what metal ion is within hemoglobin?
  41. what gases bound to what components of hemoglobin
    heme o2 globin co2
  42. types of conditions decrease in blood oxygen concentration
    hypoxia,blood loss, anemia, increased elevation
  43. which hormones will increase the production of rbc's
  44. how does erythropoeitin act
    receptors in kidneys detect low O2->erythropoeitin released->1incresed production of proerythroblasts 2increased rate of maturity
  45. how long do erythrocytes live
    120days erythrocytes live
  46. where in the body are erythrocytes broken down?
    macrophage in spleen liver or bone marrow engulfs rbcs
  47. what does globin break down into?
    amino acids which are then recycled
  48. what role does transferrin play during the break down of erythrocytes
    Iron from heme binds to transferrin a metalloprotein,transferrin-iron ion transporter
  49. what is biliverdin
    When fe3+ is removed from heme biliverdin (green)is left over then Is converted to bilirubin (yellow)
  50. What will combine in red bone marrow for erythropoiesis
    Globin,erythropoietin,vitamin b12,fe3+
  51. Where bilirubin will travel to from
    From liver to small intestines
  52. How bilirubin is converted to urobilinogen
    Normal bacteria converts bilirubin to urobilinogen(colorless)
  53. The purpose of ferritin
    Iron binds to ferritin 2 be stored in liver
  54. What urobilinogen breaks down into
    Splits apart *urobilin* to kidneys(lost in urine (makes yellow) *stercobblin* lost in feces(makes brown)
  55. How do vascular spasms occur
    Smooth muscle in vessel wall spasms-contracts THis can temp. Stop bleeding following this it relaxes and opens back up in a few secs
  56. What happens during platelet adhesion?
    Platelets stick to damaged vessel wall and endothelial cells become sticky
  57. What occurs during platelet release reaction?
    Platelets release thromboxana a2 adp and serotonin. serotonin + thromboxane A2= vasoconstrictors adp and thromboxane a = activates/attracts platelets
  58. Why and how does platelet aggregation occur?
    • Platelets gather near wound. Adp makes platelets sticky.
    • Use fibrinogen to link platelets together
  59. How is the intrinsic pathway different from the extrinsic pathway?
    • Intrinsic:more steps(slower)
    • Extrinsic:quicker,fewer steps
  60. Steps intrinstic and extrinsic activate what?
    • Both activvate factor X -causing prothrombinase to be released. Thrombinase is the enzyme use to activate prothrombin to thrombin
    • Fibrinogen- h20 soluble and fibrin is not
  61. How do antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants work? Asprin
    Anti platelet asprin block thromboxane a2 so platelets r unable to aggregate and stick together
  62. Antiplatelet drug plavix works
    Prevents adp from binding/release
  63. Anticoagulants warfarin
    Warfarin aka coumadin blocks production of clotting factors
  64. Anticoagulants heparin
    Heparin blocks thrombin
  65. Agglutunogen
    Clumping from antigen antibody binding clumping will cause blood not to flow well and cause the blood cells to burst(lyse)
  66. Agglutin
  67. Agglutinogens
    Antigens that stimulates production of agglutinin
  68. Blood a antigens and antibodies
    Antigens a antibodies b
  69. Blood b antigens and antibodies
    B antigens on surface and a anti in plamsa
  70. Ab group antibodies and antigens
    A and b antigens and no a or b antibodies
  71. Group o antigens and antibodies
    Neither antigens and a and b antibodies
  72. O plasma
    Can receive from all types and ggive to o only
  73. B plamsma
    Ccan give to b and o and recevive from b and ab
  74. A plasma
    Donate a and o and receive from a and type ab
  75. Ab plasma
    Donate all types and receive to ab only
  76. Which antigen is responsible for the rh factor
    D antigen. Rh negative only make anti d antibodies if u r exposed to rh+ blood 2nd time
  77. Hemolytic. Disease of a new born
    During 2nd pregnancy with rh+ baby those antibodies cross placenta and attack fetal cell (can cause miscarriage if large enough amount of antibodies) * rhogam is for further pregnancies
  78. Polycythemia vera
    Problem with bone marrow too many rbc made -makes blood more viscous -blood letting -chemo/radiation,bone marrow transplant SECONDARY increase in rbc that is physiologically appropriate. ex. Spending time in elevation
  79. Blood doping
    Use drugs to increase rbc count
  80. Thrombocytopenia
    Abnormally low platelet count decreases blood clotting
  81. Leukopenis
    Abnormally low wbc count-decrease ability to fight infections hiv/aids
  82. Leukemis
    Bone marrow cancer make too many wbcs can be cured by chemo transplant of bone marrow
  83. Sepsis
    Blood poisoning bacterial infection of blood starts in an infected wound
  84. Infectious mono
    Eppstein barr virus fatigue,,fever,sore throat, weight loss(viral)
  85. Malaria
    Mosquito born plasmodium parasite effects rbcs fever,fatigue,joint ppain, shivering
  86. Iron deficiency anemia
    Not enough iron, decreased ability to bind o2
  87. Folate deficiency anemia
    Not enough folate,prego women,folic acid for fetal development
  88. Pernicious anemia
    Not able to make intrinsic factor required to absorb vit. B 12(needed to make protein)
  89. Hemolytic anemia
    Rupture rbc transfusion reaction
  90. Aplastic anemia
    destruction of bone marrow quits making cells(affects all types of blood cells)
  91. Sickle cell anemia
    Abnormal hemoglobin causes cells to sickle C shape instead of round gets stuck in small vessels inable to bind o2 correctly carriers Aa are better able to fight malaria