hypervolemic(due to over hydration and some blood disorders) *hyper less common*
portion of blood composed of plasma
55% of blood volume is plasma
how much plasma is water
91.5 percent is water is plasma
what solutes would be found suspened in plasma?
electrolyts=ions,nutrients,02 and co2,hormones,enzymes,metabolic wastes
what does fibrinogen do?
what plasma protein is part of the immune system?
immunogolbins IgG IgA IgE IgD IgM spells GAMED
what plasma protein controls most of the exchange?
Albumins controls most of the exchange in the capillary
Albumins carry what?
fatty acids and steroid hormones
Albumins are found in and determine most of what?
found in egg whites and determine most of BCOP
WHAT WILL BE TRANSPORTED BY GLOBULINS
metalioproteins-transport metal ions
what portion of blood is composed of formed elements
45percent is composed of formed elements
how many erythrocytes are in a microliter of blood
4.8-5.4 million are in microliter of blood
what r the percentages of the wbc's?
what is a hemocytoblast?
blood cell stem cell can differntiate into any blood cell
what does colony forming units play in the development of formed elements?
act as signaling molecule to direct differemtiation
what precurser cells will give rise to elements?(megakaryoblast)
megakaryocytes breaks up into thromocytes aka platelets
what precurser cells will give rise to elements?(proerythroblast)
mature into erythrocytes
what precurser cells will give rise to elements? MYELOBLAST
eosinophil, neutrophiler, basophil
what precurser cells will give rise to elements? MONOBLAST
monocytes aka macrophage
what precurser cells will give rise to elements? LYPHOBLAST
how is an agranulocte different from a granulocyte?
agranulocyte have no visual in cytoplasm
granulocytes have visual in cytoplasm
eosinophil basophils neutrolphil
monocytes and lymphocytes
emigration process by which WBC leaves blood and moves into interstitial fluid
how chemotaxis affect leukocytes
chemical attraction to wbc
on endotheial cell act as an adhesian molecule to grab on wbc
on WBC use them to tether to the endotheial cell and roll down surface
how does the lack of nucleus affect erythrocytes?
no dna no mitosis,dont make proteins,little no cell repair,no mitrochondria,use glycolysis to make atp (2 atp/glucose) *no mitro cause it would use all 02 to make energy*
why the shape of rbc is important
donut biconcave disc
1allows to stack on top
2narrow area in the middle allows them to fold twist and bend 2 get thru small vessels
3high surface area to volume ratio
how many molecules of hemoglobin will each erythrocyte contain?
250-280million hemoglobin molecules
how many oxygen can a single hemoglobin bind?
4 oxygen molecules hemoglobin carries
which component of hemoglobin is composed of protein
globin units is composed of protein
which component of hemoglobin will give blood its color?
heme gives blood its color
what metal ion is within hemoglobin?
what gases bound to what components of hemoglobin
heme o2 globin co2
types of conditions decrease in blood oxygen concentration
hypoxia,blood loss, anemia, increased elevation
which hormones will increase the production of rbc's
how does erythropoeitin act
receptors in kidneys detect low O2->erythropoeitin released->1incresed production of proerythroblasts 2increased rate of maturity
how long do erythrocytes live
120days erythrocytes live
where in the body are erythrocytes broken down?
macrophage in spleen liver or bone marrow engulfs rbcs
what does globin break down into?
amino acids which are then recycled
what role does transferrin play during the break down of erythrocytes
Iron from heme binds to transferrin a metalloprotein,transferrin-iron ion transporter
what is biliverdin
When fe3+ is removed from heme biliverdin (green)is left over then Is converted to bilirubin (yellow)
What will combine in red bone marrow for erythropoiesis
Where bilirubin will travel to from
From liver to small intestines
How bilirubin is converted to urobilinogen
Normal bacteria converts bilirubin to urobilinogen(colorless)
The purpose of ferritin
Iron binds to ferritin 2 be stored in liver
What urobilinogen breaks down into
Splits apart *urobilin* to kidneys(lost in urine (makes yellow) *stercobblin* lost in feces(makes brown)
How do vascular spasms occur
Smooth muscle in vessel wall spasms-contracts THis can temp. Stop bleeding following this it relaxes and opens back up in a few secs
What happens during platelet adhesion?
Platelets stick to damaged vessel wall and endothelial cells become sticky
What occurs during platelet release reaction?
Platelets release thromboxana a2 adp and serotonin. serotonin + thromboxane A2= vasoconstrictors adp and thromboxane a = activates/attracts platelets
Why and how does platelet aggregation occur?
Platelets gather near wound. Adp makes platelets sticky.
Use fibrinogen to link platelets together
How is the intrinsic pathway different from the extrinsic pathway?
Steps intrinstic and extrinsic activate what?
Both activvate factor X -causing prothrombinase to be released. Thrombinase is the enzyme use to activate prothrombin to thrombin
Fibrinogen- h20 soluble and fibrin is not
How do antiplatelet drugs and anticoagulants work? Asprin
Anti platelet asprin block thromboxane a2 so platelets r unable to aggregate and stick together
Antiplatelet drug plavix works
Prevents adp from binding/release
Warfarin aka coumadin blocks production of clotting factors
Heparin blocks thrombin
Clumping from antigen antibody binding clumping will cause blood not to flow well and cause the blood cells to burst(lyse)
Antigens that stimulates production of agglutinin
Blood a antigens and antibodies
Antigens a antibodies b
Blood b antigens and antibodies
B antigens on surface and a anti in plamsa
Ab group antibodies and antigens
A and b antigens and no a or b antibodies
Group o antigens and antibodies
Neither antigens and a and b antibodies
Can receive from all types and ggive to o only
Ccan give to b and o and recevive from b and ab
Donate a and o and receive from a and type ab
Donate all types and receive to ab only
Which antigen is responsible for the rh factor
D antigen. Rh negative only make anti d antibodies if u r exposed to rh+ blood 2nd time
Hemolytic. Disease of a new born
During 2nd pregnancy with rh+ baby those antibodies cross placenta and attack fetal cell (can cause miscarriage if large enough amount of antibodies) * rhogam is for further pregnancies
Problem with bone marrow too many rbc made -makes blood more viscous -blood letting -chemo/radiation,bone marrow transplant SECONDARY increase in rbc that is physiologically appropriate. ex. Spending time in elevation