Soil Science final

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Soil Science final
2012-03-15 22:57:34

SS 121 Thomas Rice
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  1. Which of the following soil horizons would likely have the highest percentage of organic matter?
  2. Which of the follwing conditions would result in the greatest soil development, assuming that all other soil forming factors are equal:
    warm, dry climate, grass vegitaiton
  3. soils on south aspects in the Northern Hemisphere generally ha _______ than soils on adjacent north aspects.
    Less vegetative cover and warmer temperatures
  4. Aspect is a component of which soil forming factor?
  5. In the Northern Hemisphere, soil developement is most likely greatest on slopes which are:
  6. B horizons are defined as zones of
  7. Sediment deposits in teh bottom of fresh water lakes are called.
  8. Parent materials transported by water and gravity are called, respectively:
    alluvial and colluvial
  9. an eolian deposit of silt sized materials is called:
  10. As one travels from the Mojave Desert into the Sierra Nevada mountains, percipitation increases. one can expect the soil:
    Organic matter content is higher in the mountains
  11. Material deposited by moving fresh water is called:
  12. soils formed from landslied deposits have parent materials which are
  13. Loess is a wind deposited soil parent material. the material originally was
    alluvium in large floodplains
  14. Two landforms upon which one would expect to find alluvium include:
    stream terraces and floodplaines
  15. Alluvial soils are most often found on:
    floodplains and lake shores
  16. Aeolian parent materials would be mainly located on:
    loess plains and sand dunes
  17. the steeper the topography, usually the _____ the soil
    younger and shallower
  18. Climate is a soil-forming factor that resultsin:
    regional soil defferences
  19. The A horizon of a limestone- derived soil is more acid than the parent material due to:
    higher carbonic acid levels
  20. transported soil parent materials moved by wind and ice
    eolian and glacial
  21. Typically, the older the soil, the greater the:
    number of different soil horizons
  22. The most common mineral in limestone is:
  23. Among the following minerals which one is an important source of K and clay soils?
  24. The following minerals is a list of common igneous rock types:
    rhyolite, obsidian, gabbro
  25. the metamorphic rocks, gneiss and slate, are derived from
    granite and shale
  26. Primary minerals in igneous rocks form during the
    cooling and solidification of magma
  27. The two most abundant soil secondary minerals found in the clay-sized fraction of gabbro-derived soils are
    montmorillonite and hematite
  28. Vermiculite is derived from____ and has a physical property of_____.
    muscovite; meduim shrink- swell capacity
  29. A sedimentary rock composed of clay-sized mineral grains that are cemented together by silica is called
    siliceous shale
  30. Igneous rocks are formed in water-contact lava and surface lava flows from felsic magma are called
    obsidian and rhyolite
  31. Ferromagnesian minerals weather easily and supply the soil solution with high amounts of
    magnesium and iron
  32. Montmorillonite is derived from____ and has the physical property of:
    mica; low water - holding capacity
  33. Igneous rocks are classified into different groups based on
    silica content and rate of cooling
  34. Among the following which one is recognized as an element
  35. Muscovite is an example of a/an
  36. The downward movement of material( e.g, humus, iron oxide, clay) out of soil surface horizon is called
  37. Among the following weathering processes which one is most likely to produce clay- size minerals?
  38. Among the following processes which one is not a physical weathering process?
  39. Complete oxidationof iron in soils can result in
    a mottled appearance
  40. Which of the following essential elements is made available to plants in significant quantities by the weathering of quartz?
  41. Which of the following essential elements for plants is released by the weathering of orthoclase feldspar?
  42. NaAlSi3O8+HOH----> NaOH+ HAlSi3O8 is an example of
  43. The following secondary clay minerals would be abundant in soils weathered from granitic alluvium:
    montmorillonite and vermiculite
  44. A mottled soil condition is caused by:
    alternating oxidation and reducing conditions
  45. The two conditions necessary for reduction of iron on soils are:
    a lack of oxygen and some microbial activity
  46. Hydrolysis of a sand-sized feldspar mineral grain would result in
    a localized soil pH increase at the site of weathering
  47. The two common products of hydrolysis weathering of primary mineral are
    alumina, silica, and hydrogen in solution
  48. Secondary minerals are found in
    soils and igeneous rocks
  49. The loss of soluble salta from soils occurs mainly by:
    solution weathering and leaching
  50. physical waeathering of rock causes:
    particle size breakdown
  51. the elements added to the soil solutionby mineral weathering can be
    taken up by plants or leached
  52. The following is a list of plant essential nutrients potentially supplied to the soil by mineral weathering
    Mg, Fe,Mn, S, Mo
  53. If you were to choose the best location for a building foundation on a level slope, you would want a soil high in
    kaolinite clay and quartz sand
  54. the downward leaching of calcium carbonate in soils is accomplished by
    carbonation and solution
  55. In a sandy soil subject to rapid downward leaching of water, which substances could move deeper into the soil than silicate clays?
  56. The three most abundant elements in teh lithosphere are
    silicon, oxygen, aluminum
  57. The oxygen found in minerals in the lithosphere is
    available to plants
  58. The three most abundant gases in teh atmosohere are
    carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
  59. Then most abundant gases in teh atmosphere is
    carbon dioxide
  60. The percentage of sand, silt and clay in a soil define the soils
  61. soil mottles are
    • -spots of color
    • -indications of alternating periods of oxidation and reduction in the soil
    • -indications of fluctuating water table
    • (ALL)
  62. soils having which of the following textures would have the greatest aeration?
    loamy sand
  63. The unconsolidated and chemically weathered mineral or organic matter from which the solum of soils is developed by natural processes of soildeveloped is called
    soil profile
  64. Which of the following is an example of a structureless condition in soil?
  65. The negative logarithm in the definition of pH means that for each unit decrease in pH, the H+ concentration
    decreases by ten times
  66. The inflitration rate of water will be slowest in soils which are
  67. The arrangement of primary soil particles into aggregates which are seperated by surfaces of weakness is called
    soil structure
  68. the H+ concentration of soil solution having a pH of 4 is called
  69. Which of the following soil horizons would probably have the highestcolor value?
  70. Subordinate horizons:
    illuvial accumulation of clay
  71. Subordinate horizons:
    illuviation of iron and alumminum oxides
  72. subordinate horizon:
    farming disturbance of the topsoil
  73. Subodordinate horizon:
    illuviation accumulation of carbonates
  74. Percent porosity and soil bulk density are related. an increase in porosity results in;
    a decrease in bulk density
  75. one can decrease the soil bulk density by adding _____ to the topsoil:
    humus compost high in calcium
  76. Percipitation falling in excess of the soil infiltration rate is lost by:
    surface runoff
  77. Clay soils have higher average_____ values than sandy soils
    total water holding capacity
  78. Soil color is a result of:
    mineral composition and organic matter content
  79. One can increase the soil bulk density by adding _____ to the top soil
    granitic sand and gravel
  80. A clay loam soil with a pH of 9.5 will have a low:
    soluble aluminum ion concentration
  81. The active soil acidity is defined as the
    hydrogen and aluminum in the soil solution
  82. A clay soil, low in organic matter in the Mojave Desert, will have______ in its epipedon.
    a low humus content
  83. In order to convert and acid (pH4.0) soil into a productive (pH 6.5) agriculture soil, the best reclamation recommendation would be to:
    add lime and thoroughly incorporate it into the soil
  84. In an alkaline mineral soil derived from limestone, the following soluble cations will likely be present:
    calcium, magnesium, potassium
  85. A soil with high CEC will likely be composed of high amounts of:
    vermiculite and humus
  86. the soil pH will be ______ after 10 years, as a result of adding calcium carbonate to sandy soils
  87. In order to convert an acid organic (pH4.0) soil into a productive (pH6.0) agricultural soil.
    add lime and thoroughly incorporate it into upper foot of soil
  88. Which of the following soil textural classes would you expect to have the lowest CEC?
    loamy silt
  89. Which of the follwing has the highest cation exchange capacity?
  90. The clay mineral which is most often responsible for swelling and shrinking in soils:
  91. Soils of which of the following textures can absorb and hold the greatest amount of air pollutants along heavily traveled highway?
    clay loam
  92. The potential soil acidity is defined as the
    aluminum and hydrogen on the cation exchange complex
  93. the following are acid cations abundant in pH 4.5 soil
    aluminum, hydrogen
  94. In an alkaline mineral soil derived from dolomite, the following cations will likely be present:
    magnesium, calcium
  95. Soil pH is a measure of:
    hydrogen ions in the soil solution
  96. In order to convert an alkaline (pH9.5) soil into a productive (pH 6.5) agricultural soil, the best reclamation recomindation would be to
    add phosphoric acid, sulfur and organic matter to the topsoil and thoroughly incorporate it
  97. In an acid mineral soil derived from granite, teh following cations will likely be present:
    hydrogen, potassium
  98. The following buffer compounds tend to maintain an alkaline soil pH
    calcium and sodium carbonates
  99. The optimum pH range for maximum plant nutrient availability is
    6.5 to 7.5
  100. A loamy sand soil, high in organic matter in redwood forest. will have______ in its epipedon.
    a low percent basic cation saturation
  101. A clay soil derivede from basalt would contain high amounts of:
    montmorillonite and iron oxides
  102. The active soil acidity is defined as the
    hydrogen and aluminum in the soil solution
  103. Calcium is considered a_____ cation and is derived from the weathering of ____
    basic; calcite
  104. in an acid (pH 4.5) mineral granite- derived soil, the following soluble cations will likely be present:
    hydrogen, aluminum
  105. in order to convert an alkaline mineral(pH 9.0) soil into productive (pH 6.5) agriculture soil, the best reclamation recomendation would be to
    add sulfuric acid and organic matter to the top soil and thoroughly incorporate it
  106. In an acid mineral soil derived from granite. the following cations will likely be deficient
    magnesium, calcium
  107. The more vermiculite clay and organic matter a soil has, the greater its:
    cation exchange copacity
  108. The following buffer compounds tend to maintain an acid soil pH
    carbonic acid and humus
  109. Soil buffering capacity can be increased by adding _____ to the top soil
    organic matter and calcite (has hydrogen)
  110. The material which is most often added to acid soils to raise the pH is
    calcium carbonate
  111. The most common acid found in all A horizons is
    carbonic acid
  112. Which of the following textures has the highest cation exchange copacity, assuming that they all have the same organic matter content?
    clay loam
  113. In an acid, organic soil, the following cations will likely be present:
    hydrogen, ammonium, aluminum
  114. soils can be acidified by incorporating ______ to teh top soil
  115. The soil pH will be ______ after 10 years, as a result of adding ammonium-nitrogen fertilizers to sandy soils:
  116. The exchange complexes of strongly acid (pH 4.5) mineral soils are saturated mainly with
    exchangeable Al3+ ions
  117. In the B horizons of which order would you most likely find a soil with the highest buffering capacity?
  118. How does the amount of lime needed to neutralize the residual acidity in clay loam soil compare to that needed to neutralize the active acidity in that soil?
    residual takes 10 times greater
  119. Which of the follwing human actions is most apt to result in a long term increase in soil pH?
    irrigation with high sodium salt containing waters
  120. the drainage of certain wetlands can resulted in extreme soil acidity because____
    oxidation of sulfer bearing minerals that produces sulfuric acid
  121. Which of these elements is most likely to be toxic to plants in a soil pH 4.0?
  122. Phosphorus availability is very low in most strongly acid soils because of its reaction with
  123. Assume you want to grow azaleas in a soil with a pH of 6.0. the application of which of the following would be most appropriatw to make this soil suitable for this ornamental?
    elemental sulfur
  124. If you want to quickly increase the pH of a soil from 5.5 to 7.0 which of the following would you use?
    calcitic limestone
  125. Under which of the following conditions would you favor a finely ground dolomitic limestone as your choice among liming minerals?
    need to provide magnesium in addition to calcium
  126. Which of the is likely to occur when lime is added to the surface a soil pH 6.0?
    CO2 in the soil air helps solunilize the CaCO3 and increase its rate of downwardmovement
  127. In humid regions, applications of limestone are repeated every few years primarily because of
    increased rates of formation of carbonic acid
  128. The very high pH levels found in some arid region soils are most likely due to high levels exchangeable
    Na carbonate
  129. Poor plant growth in well-drained irrigated Ardisol (pH=8.0) is most likely due to ___
    iron deficiency
  130. M
  131. The CEC of alkaline soils are generally higher than those of most acid soils of similar texture. Which of the following characteristics of alkaline soils most likely accounts for this high CEC?
    high content of 2 1 clay types
  132. A homeowner in new mexico attempted to grow azaleas in well drained soil (7.5) but the plants were stunted and the leaves were yellow. what is the most likely cause of this constraint?
    Fe deficiency
  133. Some irrigation systems have stimulated the formation of saline and saline-sodic soils. which of the following contributes to this process?
    inadequate drainage systems to remove soluble salts
  134. X
  135. Saline soils are charicterized by
    low chloride and sulfate contents
  136. Saline -sodic soils are characterized all but which one of the following?
    CaCO3 layer near the soil surface
  137. Soil physical conditions began to deteriorate and crop yields began to decline several years after farmer started irrigating a field. which of the follwing most likely account for this solution?
    high SAR of the irrigation water
  138. Which of the following plants would most apt to tolerate soil salinity?
  139. Which of the following characteristicsof irrigation water is most apt to stimulate the formation of high sodic soils?
    high SAR values
  140. If you want to reclaim a saline -sodic soil, which of the following practices would you most likely use?
    Leach the soil with water high in Ca2+ and Mg2+
  141. you were advised to use elemental sulfur in the reclemation of saline-sodic soil. Indicate how the sulfur helps bring about this reclamation.
    sulfur is oxidized and forms sulfuric acid which, in turn removes the exchangeable Na+
  142. Gypsum is the most widely used chemical for the reclamation of sodic soils. what characteristic likely accounts for this popularity?
    gypsum is abundant and low priced
  143. Sodic soils generally have a poor physical condition. This is most likely due to
    dispersal of the Na saturated soil colloids
  144. Available phosphorus levels are constrained in alkaline and salt-affected soils because of
    high calcium and magnesium levels
  145. Attempts phosphorus levels are constrained in alkaline and salt-affected soils because of____
    increase in percentage sodium saturation
  146. Which of the following comparisons of the three different classes of salt-affected soil is correct?
    Saline soils are generally higher in soluable salts than saline sodic soils
  147. The growth of plants on sodic soils is constrained by all but one of the following
    toxicity of very high levels of calcium carbonate
  148. The degradation of irrigated soils across the once very productive "fertile Crescent" of the middle east was due primarily to
    poor internal drainage and high watertables within the soils
  149. which of the follwing best describes a sodic soil?
    EC= 1 mmhos/cm; ESP= 25%; pH= 9.5
  150. Which of the following would be the best management recommendation for sodic soil reclamation?
    add gypsum, add sulfuric acid, and leach
  151. Which of the following is not a potential source of salt in soils?
    eolian quartz sand
  152. Which of the following soil parent materials would not be a potential source of soluble salts in soils?
    quartzite residuum
  153. High sodium contents in clay loam soils often result in:
    decreased permeability rates
  154. In order to convert a saline soil to non- saline, which treatment would be the best management recommendation?
    irrigate with good quality water
  155. Which of the following best describes a saline soil?
    EC=20mmhos; ESP=10%; pH=7.5
  156. (158)Which of the following groups of soil orginisms are responsible for greatest amount of organic matter decomposition in soils?
  157. Skip
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  159. Which of the following microorganisms can commonly be seen with the unaided eye in organic matter-rich soils?
  160. Compared to the bulk soil in which earthworms live, earthworm casts contain
    more of most plant available nutrients
  161. skip
  162. In nature, beneficial mycorrhize form with the roots of___
    • -coniferous trees
    • grasses
    • legumes
    • broad leaf trees
    • (all)
  163. In most soils the overall population of microorganisms changes with time, generally following changes in the
    supply of decomposable organic matter
  164. Memebers of this(these) microbial groups are resposible for a major proportion of nitrogen fixed globally in symbiosis with higher plants
  165. (168)Oxidation or reduction of inorganic soil constituents such as iron and sulfur is carried out by members of which group of microorganisms
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  169. Nearly all organic compounds from which living beings are made have as thier backbone, chains or rings of____ atoms
  170. Which of the following are major sources of the carbon dioxide now being added the atmosphere in excess of the amount taken out by plants?
    • loss of soil organic matter
    • destruction of natural forests
    • burning of fossil feuls
    • (all)
  171. Which of the following is a greenhouse gas contributed to the atmosphere by soils?
    • nitrous oxide
    • carbon dioxide
    • methane
    • (all)
  172. after drying to eliminate the water in plant litter, which two elements account for about 80% of the dry weight?
    c and h
  173. Humic substances consist of ___
    • living organisms and cells
    • identifiable biomolecules
    • dead plant and animal tissues
    • polymerized non identifiable molecules
    • (all)
  174. Soil irganic matter consist of ____
    dead tissues and wastes
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  176. One would expect well drained soils to have the highest organic matter contents where the climate is ____
    cool and wet
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  178. Soils with thick horizons consisting mainly (>30% by weight) of organic matter and that form in topographic depression or low -lying places usually belong to the soil order.
  179. A soil low in organic matter is most likely to be deficient in whicj esssential element for plant growth?
  180. in aerobic respiration by microbes_____ is absorbed, and ______ is released
    oxygen, carbon dioxide
  181. The terms nitrification and nitrogen fixation are often confused. Nitrification actually means
    the biochemical oxidation of ammonium to nitrate
  182. Which is NOT a mechanism of loss of nitrogen from the total soil system?
  183. Which of the following is an example of nitrogen immobilization?
    absorption of nitrate ion by a bacterial cell
  184. The conversion of nitrogen gas to a plant available form of nitrogen is accomplished nitially through the process of
    symbiotic nitrogen fixation
  185. Nitrogen immobilization in soils occurs as a result of
    adding high C N ratio organic matter
  186. Humus in soils is
    a by product of organic matter decomposition
  187. Organic matter decomposition is increased by
    adequate soil aeration
  188. The three nutrients whose availability to plants is most directly related to the decomposition of organic matter in soil are:
    nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur
  189. Soil air differs from the atmosphere we breath in that:
    Soil air has higher carbon dioxide content
  190. organic matter influences many soils properties organic matter causes
    increased soil water- holding capacity
  191. As the percentage of soil organic matter is decreased due to poor crop management. generally the:
    bulk density increases
  192. the C N ratio of organic materials refers to the
    carbon to nitrogen ratio
  193. Nitrogen is a component of which essential plant compounds
  194. a deficiency of N typically _____ the maturity of annal plants
  195. Applied to agricultural crops, the term lodging refers to
    plants falling over, often as a result of too much N
  196. In early stages of plant nitrogen deficiency, the most obvious symptoms are
    yellowish colors in the oldest leaves
  197. Plsnts obtain nitrogen from the soil by taking up
    • soluble ions
    • soluble organic compounds
    • soluble cations
    • (all)
  198. the greater majority of nitrogen (95 to 98) in soils can be found in the form of
    organic compounds
  199. The process of_____ releases soluble nitrogen as the result of the breakdown of nitrogen- rich organic compounds
  200. The opposite process from mineralization is
  201. Ammonium fixation would be expected to be greatest in soils containing a lot of
  202. Ammonia losses are likely to be greatest if a nitrogen source is placed about 10cm deep in
    a calcereous sandy loam soil
  203. Methemoglobinemia is principally a potential threat to
    babies drinking water high in nitrate
  204. Compared to gypsum, elemental sulfur is sometimes considered a more desireable fertilizer material because
    it contains more nutrient sulfur, kilogram for kilogram, the gypsum
  205. Because of ______ soils developed in marine marshes can become ectremely acid if drained ofr agriculture or used as topsoil
    oxidation of sulfides
  206. The drainage class of a soil is directly related to
    water table depth
  207. A reddish brown soil located on an upland landscape position is
    well drained
  208. the soil with more macropores will have:
    rapid inflitration rate and low water holding capacity
  209. a grayish loe chroma soil located on concave valley landscape position is most likely to be
    very poorly drained
  210. the seasonally high watertable of a soil determines its:
    drainage class
  211. the soil with more micropores willl have
    slower inflitration rate and higher water holding capacity
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  225. Many agricultural soils in the SW san juaquin valley_____ in thier topsoils
    sodium carbonate and chlorides
  226. Large areas of western Fresno Co. are subject to subsidence due to______
    overburden pressure caused by agricultural crops and houses
  227. Vernal pools are
    depressional areas that form seasonal wetlands due to water ponding
  228. Organic matter decomposition within the sacramento Delta islands causes
    subsudence of the land and destruction of human structures
  229. Many agricultural soils in the talure lake basin have ____ in thier subsoils
    sodium carbonate and chloride salts
  230. The sodium near Mount Lassen are weathered from
    volcanic ash and igneous rocks
  231. Land leveling of agricultural soils of the San Joaquin Valley causes
    natural topsoils to be buried and subsoils to be exposed at the surface
  232. subsoil drainage systems in agricultural soils helps to
    remove chloride salts from the soil
  233. Enviornmental concerns related to agricultural soil drainage systems include
    disposal of drainage water containing salts and toxic elements
  234. Mechanical ripping of soil hardpans in the eastern San Joaquin valley causes
    improved rooting depths for perennial tree crops
  235. Irrigation of agricultural soils in the San Joaquin Valley results in
    increased humidity and moisture levels in the atmosphere
  236. Subsudence of soils in the western Fresno Co. area causing
    cracks to form in walls of teh california aqueduct