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What is the functional unit of the respiratory system?
The Alveoli

What are the parts of the upper respiratory tract?
Paranasal Sinuses, External Nares, Nasal Meatae, Internal Nares (Choanae), Auditory Tube, Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx, Lips, Oral Cavity, Fauces, Esophagus

What is the dividing line between the upper and lower respiratory system?
The Glottis

What are the parts of the lower respiratory tract?
Glottis, Larynx, Trachea, Primary Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi, Bronchioles, and Terminal Bronchiole

What are the conducting airways?
Pipes/tubes to get air in and out of the alveoli

What is the gas exhchange area?
The alveoli, the functional unit of the respiratory system

What are the parts of the gas exchange area?
Respiratory Bronchioles, Alveolar Ducts, Alveolar Sacs

In what order does air flow through the upper respiratory tract (nose)?
External Nares, (Superior, Middle, Inferior) Meatus, Internal Nares (Choanae), Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx, Esophagus

In what order does air flow through the upper respiratory tract (mouth)?
Lips, Oral Cavity, Fauces, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx, Esophagus

In what order does air flow through the upper respiratory tract (ear)?
Auditory Tube, Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx, Esophagus

What is the order of the conducting airway?
Glottis, Larynx, Trachea, Primary Bronchi, Secondary Bronchi, Bronchioles, Terminal Bronchiole

What is Boyle's Law?
P x V = Constant
In any given system a change in one creates a proportionate and inverse change in the other

How do changes in chest volume equate with breathing?
Negative pressure is created in chest cavity > pressure is greater outside > air moves into lungs
Volume of air in lungs increases > pressure is greater inside > air moves out

What muscles are involved in inhalation?
Diaphragm and External Intercostals
(Sternocleomastoid has some effect)

How does the diaphragm work?
Changes the vertical depth of the thorasic cavity.
In a resting position the diaphragm is concave, to breath in the diaphragm is flattened out pulling the floor of the thorasic cavity downward

How do the external intercostals work?
Changes the horizontal depth of the thorasic cavity.
11 pairs, vertical fibers, anchor to 1st rib, contraction pulls ribs up and out, increasing area of cavity.

What muscles are involved in exhilation?
Internal Intercostals, Rectis Abdominus
(Other abdominal muscles have some effect)

How do the internal intercostals work?
Changes the horizontal depth of the thorasic cavity.
11 pairs, horizontal fibers, anchor to 12th rib, contraction pulls ribs down and in, decreasing area of cavity

How does the rectus abdominus work?
Extends from pelvic symphysis to last rib on either side of the midline, pulls ribs downward and depresses abdomen

How do other abdominal muscles work in exhalation?
"Diaphragm Elevators"
By pushing organs up against the diaphragm to actively exhale.

When is muscular effort NOT needed?
Exhalation (normal/not forced)

What are the functions of the conducting airways (main)?
 1. comduction of air to alveoli
 2. e.q. of external air to body temp.
 3. saturation of air with water vaper (100% relative humidity)
 4. filtration of particulates

What are the functions of the conducting airways (secondary)?
 1. olfaction
 2. gustation
 3. voice
 4. phonation

What is ciliary escalation?
The movement of mucus across the mucus membrane by cilia.

What is the direction of mucus escalation in the upper respiratory tract?
Posterior  toward the back of the throat

What is the direction of mucus escalation in the lower respiratory tract?
Upwards  toward the throat

What is Tidal Volume (T.V.)?
Inspiration and expiration at rest
(normal is about 0.5L)

What is the Inspiratory Reserve Volume (I.R.V.)?
The maximum inhale after resting inhale.
(normal is about 3.0L)

What is the Expiratory Reserve Volume (E.R.V.)?
The maximum exhale after resting exhale.
(normal is about 1.1L)

What is the Residual Volume (R.V.)?
The amount of air that remains after maximum exhale.
Cannot be exhaled.
(normal is about 1.2L)

What is the Inspiratory Capacity (I.C.)?
Tidal Volume + Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled after a resting exhalation.

What is the Functional Residual Capacity (F.R.C.)?
Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume
The volume of air left in the respiratory system after a resting exhalation.

What is the Vital Capacity (V.C.)?
Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume
The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled and exhaled conciously.

What is the Total Lung Capacity (T.L.C.)?
Inspiratory Reserve Volume + Tidal Volume + Expiratory Reserve Volume + Residual Volume
The total amount of air that caan occupy the respiratory system.

T.V. is 0.5L and I.R.V. is 3.5L
What is the I.C.
4.0L
T.V. + I.R.V. = I.C.

E.R.V. is 1.0L and R.V. is 1.0L
What is the F.R.C.?
2.0L
E.R.V. + R.V. = F.R.C.

I.R.V. is 3.5L, T.V. is 0.5L, and E.R.V. is 1.0L
What is the V.C.?
5.0L
I.R.V. + T.V. + E.R.V. = V.C.

I.R.V. is 3.5L, T.V. is 0.5L, E.R.V. is 1.0L, and R.V. is 1.0L
What is the T.L.C.?
6.0L
I.R.V + T.V. + E.R.V + R.V. = T.L.C.

I.C. is 4.0L and I.R.V. is 3.5L
What is the T.V.?
0.5L
I.C.  I.R.V. = T.V.

F.R.C. is 2.0L and R.V. is 1.0L
What is the E.R.V.?
1.0L
F.R.C.  R.V. = E.R.V.

V.C. is 5.0L, T.V. is 0.5L, and E.R.V. is 1.0
What is the I.R.V.
3.5L
V.C.  T.V.  E.R.V. = I.R.V.

T.L.C. is 6.0L, T.V. is 0.5L, E.R.V. is 1.0L, and R.V. is 1.0L
What is the I.R.V.?
3.5L
T.L.C.  T.V.  E.R.V.  R.V. = I.R.V.

I.C. is 4.0L and T.V. is 0.5L
What is the I.R.V.?
3.5L
I.C.  T.V. = I.R.V.

F.R.C. is 2.0L and E.R.V. is 1.0L
What is the R.V.?
1.0L
F.R.C.  E.R.V. = R.V.

V.C. is 5.0L, I.R.V. is 3.5L, and E.R.V. is 1.0L
What is the T.V.?
0.5L
V.C.  I.R.V.  E.R.V.  T.V.

T.L.C. is 6.0, I.R.V. is 3.5L, E.R.V. is 1.0L, and R.V. is 1.0L
What is the T.V.?
0.5L
T.L.C.  I.R.V.  E.R.V.  R.V. = T.V.

V.C. is 5.0L, I.R.V. is 3.5L, T.V. is 0.5L
What is the E.R.V.?
1.0L
V.C.  I.R.V.  T.V. = E.R.V

T.L.C. is 6.0L, I.R.V. is 3.5, T.V. is 0.5L, and R.V. is 1.0L
What is the E.R.V.?
1.0L
T.L.C.  I.R.V.  T.V.  R.V. = E.R.V.

T.L.C. is 6.0L, I.R.V. is 3.5, T.V. is 0.5L, and E.R.V. is 1.0L
What is the R.V.?
1.0L
T.L.C.  I.R.V.  T.V.  E.R.V. = R.V.

How do the conduction airways protect the alveoli and epithelium of the lungs?
1. warms or cools air to 98.6F/37C to keep alveoli from going into shock from constant changes
2. increses humidity of the air before it reaches alveoli to prevent water loss (dehydration)

What is the primary location of particulate filtration in the conduction airway?
The nasal miatae
Air swirls through "vallies" and particles are "thrown" into mucus membrane and trapped.

What is Relative Humidity?
The percent of water in the air compared to the percent that CAN be in the air
(exa. at 100% relative humidity, any more added would cause rain)

What is the temperatures effect on humidity?
The highter the temperature the more water vapor the atmosphere can hold.

What is the normal atmosphyric pressure?
1atm

How many levels of division exist in the bronchi?
26
The largest being the primary bronchi, the smallest being the bronchioles

How many layers of tissue exist in the conducting airways?
3 layers
 Inner  pseudostratified columnar
 Middle  dense iegular and cartilage (rings)
 Outter  loose connective

How many layers of tissue exist in the alveoli?
1 layer
Layers thin as you decend further in the tree
Alveoli have one layer of simple squamos epithelium

