Card Set Information

2012-03-18 11:50:37

Bio 2114 Chap 20,21
Show Answers:

  1. Primary function of Lymph Vessels
    Drainage vessesls that collects excess protein intersititial fliod and returns it to the blood.
  2. What tissue lacks lymph capillaries? Why?
    Bones, teeth, bone marrow and the CNS

    Because they use CSF to collect fluid
  3. Where are lacteals located?
    In the intestinal mucosa

    It carries white fatty lymph called Chyle.
  4. What factors drive the flow of lymph in lymphatic vessels?
    • Smooth muscle contract in vessel walls
    • Pressure changes in thorax from breathing
    • Valves prevent backflow
  5. What are the 2 major types of lymphocytes?
    • T Cells
    • B Cells
  6. Function of T Cells
    Immune response against viral and cancer cells
  7. Function of B Cells
    Produce plasma cells that synthesize antibodies
  8. Where in the lymph node would you find follicles?
    In the outer cortex and consist of B Cells
  9. Function of the Thymus
    Maturation of T Cells (childhood)
  10. Function of the Spleen
    • Largest lymphoid organ
    • Removes aged and defective blood cells from circulation
    • Contain macrophages to clean blood of foreign matter
    • Stores RBC for later use
  11. Name the forms of tonsils and where they are located
    • Palatine - End of Oral Cavity
    • Lingual - Base of tongue
    • Tubal - Openings of auditory tubes into pharynx
  12. The tonsil that is most likely to be infected
    Palatine Tonsil
  13. What are Peyer's patch and where are they found?
    • Peyer's patches establish their importance in the immune
    • surveillance of the intestinal lumen and in facilitating the generation of the immune response within the mucosa.

    Located in the Ileum
  14. A functional system consisting of trillions of immune cells and molecules tha inhait lymphatic tissues and circulation providing resistance to diease (immunity)
    The Immune System
  15. Cells and molecules PRESENT FROM BIRTH in skin and circulation that protect against invading pathogens.
    Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses
  16. What are the components of the innate or nonspecific immune system?
    • Skin and Mucosae
    • Cells and Chemicals
  17. Where are surface barriers or external body membranes located in the body?
    Epithelial (skin & mucosae)
  18. How do surface barriers protect against infection?
    By inhibiting the growth of bacteria and trapping and killing microorganisms.
  19. What are some of the chemicals produce in surface barriers?
    • Acid
    • HCI
    • Lysozyme Protein
    • Mucus
  20. Cells that ingest large particles and bacteria and break them down
  21. Develop from monocytes that enter tissues

    Most dominant phagocyte
  22. What are the primary phagocytic cells of the innate immune system?
    where are they located
    • Alveolar----Lungs
    • Dendritic (Langerhan's)----Epidermis
    • Kupffer----Liver
    • Microglia-----Brain
  23. What is the function of natural killer cells?
    Kill virus and cancer infected cells
  24. How is the function of natural killer cells different from that of lymphocytes?
    Natural killer cells do not target a specific virus or cancer cell type
  25. Name the 4 signs of inflammation?
    • Redness
    • Swelling
    • Heat
    • Pain
  26. Main inflammatory chemicals produced by cells of the immune system
    • Histamine
    • Kinins
    • Prostaglandins
    • Complement
    • Cytokines
  27. What are benefits of local edema produced by exudate containinginflammatory chemicals and proteins?
    • Dilutes toxic chemicals from pathogens
    • speeds delivery of repair materials
  28. Function of Interferon (IFN)
    • A protein that prevent viral replication in neighboring cells
    • Mobilize macrophages to area and activate NK cells
  29. Group of plasma proteins that when activate release chemical mediators that amplify inflammatory response, enchance phagocytosis and lyse cells
  30. To make (bacteria or other cells) more susceptible to the action of phagocytes.
  31. Group of complement proteins that inserts into cell membrane to cause cell death
    Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
  32. Abnormally high body temp in response to chemicals called pyrogens secreted by leukocytes and macrophages exposed to bacteria and antigens
  33. any substance or agent that tends to cause a rise in body temperature, such as some bacterial toxins
  34. Name the cells that recognize specific foreign substances and act to immobilize, neutralize and destroy them
    • T Cells
    • B Cells
  35. Antigen-specific, systemic, and have memory
    Adaptive defenses
  36. Immune cells present throughout body
  37. Memory cells enhance response to previously encoutnered antigens
    Memory Cells
  38. Difference in humoral immunity and cellular immunity
    • Humoral immunity is mediated by antibodies
    • Cellular immunity is mediated directly by T Cells
  39. Molecules that are not normally present in the body (nonself), and provoke an immune response
  40. a site on the surface of an antigen molecule to which a single antibody
    molecule binds; generally an antigen has several or many different
    antigenic determinants and reacts with many different antibodies
    Antigenic Determinant
  41. the ability of an antigen to stimulate proliferation of lymphocytes and antibody production
  42. the ability of an antigen to react with the lymphocytes and antibodies
  43. small molecules that are reactive but not immunogenic unless attached to a protein carrier
  44. immunogenic regions of antigen
    antigenic determinants
  45. antigens that are not immunogenic to an individual but strongly immunogenic to others
    self antigens
  46. Self antigens involved in cellular immunity
    MHC Major histocompatibility complex proteins
  47. What is the MHC (self antigen) in humans called?
    HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen)
  48. Produced from lymphoid stem cells in bone marrow
  49. where are Class I MHC located
    On surface of nearly all cells
  50. Where are Class II MHC located
    Only on surface of professional antigenpresenting cells.
  51. What types of cells express self antigens
    • MHC
    • HLA
    • APC
  52. these cells become immunocompetent in Bone Marrow
    B Cells
  53. These cells become immunocompetent in Thymus
    T Cells
  54. T cells that strongly bin or are not immunocompetent are weeded out and destroyed, while T cells that weakly bind continue to develop
  55. Engulfs and digest antigens and presents part of theim on its plasma membrane for recognition by T cell receptors
    Antigen Presenting Cells
  56. % classes of antibodies
    • IgD
    • IgM
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgE
  57. Class of antibody that is the B cell antigen receptor
  58. Most abundant circulating antibody; protects against bacteria, viruss and toxins
    primary and secondary responses
  59. Class of antibody rarely in plasma
    In skin, mucosae of digestive and respirtory tracts 7 tonsils
  60. Genes for H & L chain proteins contain segments of DNA that are shuffled by somatic recombination
    Results in a variation in the antigen specificity of the antibodies produced
    antibody diversityh
  61. The cell that can produce mor than 1 class of antibody
  62. Functions of antibodies
    • Precipitation
    • Lysis
    • Agglutination
    • Neutralization
  63. Antibodies bind antigens to form antigen-antibody complexes that inactive antigens or target them for destruction
    Functions of antibodies
  64. Large antigen-antibody complexes formed that settle out of solution
    Makes easier targets for macrophages
  65. Antibodies bind to antigens on surface of bacteria and mismatched red blood cells
    Triggers fixation ancd cell death
  66. IgM binds to antigens on surface of mismatched red blood cells and form large complexes (Clumping)
  67. Antibody binds to active site of toxin and inactivates it
  68. pure antibody preparations produced from a B cell clone used in clinical applications
    Monoclonal antibodies
  69. T cells stimulated by antigen
    Leads to lysis of virus infected cells or cancer cells
    Elevation of immune response
    Cell-Mediated immune response
  70. T Cell receptors bind to antigen-MHC protein complex to form clones
    Clonal selection of T cells
  71. Cytotoxic T cells
    CD8 (lyse target cells
  72. Helper T cells
    CD4 cells
  73. Release chemicals called cytokines that amplify immune response
    Helper T cells
  74. T Cell Activation
    • Antigen Recognition & MHC restriction
    • Tc Cell Receptors bind to short peptides
    • Th Cell receptors bind to longer peptides
    • Costimuation-signaled to contiue activation
  75. hormone-like glycoproteins released by activated T cells and macrophages
  76. (IL-1 IL-2) Act as costimulators of T cells and T cell proliferation

    Include cell toxins and inflammatory factors
  77. These cells are required for adaptive immune responses
    Mobilize immune cells and macrophages
    Enhance nonspecific defenses
    Helper T Cells
  78. Also called Killer T cells
    Directly attack and kill APCs with recognzed foreign antigen/MHC complex on cell surface
    Cytotoxic T cells
  79. Release cytokines that suppress activity of T & B cells
    Involved in ending/cleaning up response
    Suppressor T cells
  80. Release cytokines to active macrophages in delayed hypersensitivity reactions
    Delayed hypersensitivity cells
  81. Small intestinal population of T cells
    Gamma-delta T cells
  82. Prevention of Rejection or an Organ Transplant
    • Both blood group & MHC are typed to match
    • Immunosuppressive Therapy
  83. Conditons whre the production or function of immune cells, phagoctyes or complement is impaired or abnormal
  84. Syndrome that is congenital and results from deficits in both T and B cells
    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SCID)
  85. condition in which the body produces antibodies and activated cytotoxic T cells that target and destroy one's own body tissue
    Autoimmune diseases

    Lupus, RA,MS
  86. Types of Hypersensitivity
    • Immediate
    • Subacute
    • Delayed
  87. Hypersensitivity where contact with allergen sensitizes individual; second contact results in swelling
    Type I (Anaphylaxis)
  88. Hypersensitivity mediated by IgG & IgM
  89. Slower to appear, 1-3 days, mediated by T cells

    allergic contact dermatitis
    Delayed hypersensitivity.

    type 4 reactions