Drainage vessesls that collects excess protein intersititial fliod and returns it to the blood.
What tissue lacks lymph capillaries? Why?
Bones, teeth, bone marrow and the CNS
Because they use CSF to collect fluid
Where are lacteals located?
In the intestinal mucosa
It carries white fatty lymph called Chyle.
What factors drive the flow of lymph in lymphatic vessels?
Smooth muscle contract in vessel walls
Pressure changes in thorax from breathing
Valves prevent backflow
What are the 2 major types of lymphocytes?
Function of T Cells
Immune response against viral and cancer cells
Function of B Cells
Produce plasma cells that synthesize antibodies
Where in the lymph node would you find follicles?
In the outer cortex and consist of B Cells
Function of the Thymus
Maturation of T Cells (childhood)
Function of the Spleen
Largest lymphoid organ
Removes aged and defective blood cells from circulation
Contain macrophages to clean blood of foreign matter
Stores RBC for later use
Name the forms of tonsils and where they are located
Palatine - End of Oral Cavity
Lingual - Base of tongue
Tubal - Openings of auditory tubes into pharynx
The tonsil that is most likely to be infected
What are Peyer's patch and where are they found?
Peyer's patches establish their importance in the immune
surveillance of the intestinal lumen and in facilitating the generation of the immune response within the mucosa.
Located in the Ileum
A functional system consisting of trillions of immune cells and molecules tha inhait lymphatic tissues and circulation providing resistance to diease (immunity)
The Immune System
Cells and molecules PRESENT FROM BIRTH in skin and circulation that protect against invading pathogens.
Innate (Nonspecific) Defenses
What are the components of the innate or nonspecific immune system?
Skin and Mucosae
Cells and Chemicals
Where are surface barriers or external body membranes located in the body?
Epithelial (skin & mucosae)
How do surface barriers protect against infection?
By inhibiting the growth of bacteria and trapping and killing microorganisms.
What are some of the chemicals produce in surface barriers?
Cells that ingest large particles and bacteria and break them down
Develop from monocytes that enter tissues
Most dominant phagocyte
What are the primary phagocytic cells of the innate immune system?
where are they located
What is the function of natural killer cells?
Kill virus and cancer infected cells
How is the function of natural killer cells different from that of lymphocytes?
Natural killer cells do not target a specific virus or cancer cell type
Name the 4 signs of inflammation?
Main inflammatory chemicals produced by cells of the immune system
What are benefits of local edema produced by exudate containinginflammatory chemicals and proteins?
Dilutes toxic chemicals from pathogens
speeds delivery of repair materials
Function of Interferon (IFN)
A protein that prevent viral replication in neighboring cells
Mobilize macrophages to area and activate NK cells
Group of plasma proteins that when activate release chemical mediators that amplify inflammatory response, enchance phagocytosis and lyse cells
To make (bacteria or other cells) more susceptible to the action of phagocytes.
Group of complement proteins that inserts into cell membrane to cause cell death
Membrane Attack Complex (MAC)
Abnormally high body temp in response to chemicals called pyrogens secreted by leukocytes and macrophages exposed to bacteria and antigens
any substance or agent that tends to cause a rise in body temperature, such as some bacterial toxins
Name the cells that recognize specific foreign substances and act to immobilize, neutralize and destroy them
Antigen-specific, systemic, and have memory
Immune cells present throughout body
Memory cells enhance response to previously encoutnered antigens
Difference in humoral immunity and cellular immunity
Humoral immunity is mediated by antibodies
Cellular immunity is mediated directly by T Cells
Molecules that are not normally present in the body (nonself), and provoke an immune response
a site on the surface of an antigen molecule to which a single antibody
molecule binds; generally an antigen has several or many different
antigenic determinants and reacts with many different antibodies
the ability of an antigen to stimulate proliferation of lymphocytes and antibody production
the ability of an antigen to react with the lymphocytes and antibodies
small molecules that are reactive but not immunogenic unless attached to a protein carrier
immunogenic regions of antigen
antigens that are not immunogenic to an individual but strongly immunogenic to others
Self antigens involved in cellular immunity
MHC Major histocompatibility complex proteins
What is the MHC (self antigen) in humans called?
HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen)
Produced from lymphoid stem cells in bone marrow
where are Class I MHC located
On surface of nearly all cells
Where are Class II MHC located
Only on surface of professional antigenpresenting cells.
What types of cells express self antigens
these cells become immunocompetent in Bone Marrow
These cells become immunocompetent in Thymus
T cells that strongly bin or are not immunocompetent are weeded out and destroyed, while T cells that weakly bind continue to develop
Engulfs and digest antigens and presents part of theim on its plasma membrane for recognition by T cell receptors
Antigen Presenting Cells
% classes of antibodies
Class of antibody that is the B cell antigen receptor
Most abundant circulating antibody; protects against bacteria, viruss and toxins
primary and secondary responses
Class of antibody rarely in plasma
In skin, mucosae of digestive and respirtory tracts 7 tonsils
Genes for H & L chain proteins contain segments of DNA that are shuffled by somatic recombination
Results in a variation in the antigen specificity of the antibodies produced
The cell that can produce mor than 1 class of antibody
Functions of antibodies
Antibodies bind antigens to form antigen-antibody complexes that inactive antigens or target them for destruction
Functions of antibodies
Large antigen-antibody complexes formed that settle out of solution
Makes easier targets for macrophages
Antibodies bind to antigens on surface of bacteria and mismatched red blood cells
Triggers fixation ancd cell death
IgM binds to antigens on surface of mismatched red blood cells and form large complexes (Clumping)
Antibody binds to active site of toxin and inactivates it
pure antibody preparations produced from a B cell clone used in clinical applications
T cells stimulated by antigen
Leads to lysis of virus infected cells or cancer cells
Elevation of immune response
Cell-Mediated immune response
T Cell receptors bind to antigen-MHC protein complex to form clones
Clonal selection of T cells
Cytotoxic T cells
CD8 (lyse target cells
Helper T cells
Release chemicals called cytokines that amplify immune response
Helper T cells
T Cell Activation
Antigen Recognition & MHC restriction
Tc Cell Receptors bind to short peptides
Th Cell receptors bind to longer peptides
Costimuation-signaled to contiue activation
hormone-like glycoproteins released by activated T cells and macrophages
(IL-1 IL-2) Act as costimulators of T cells and T cell proliferation
Include cell toxins and inflammatory factors
These cells are required for adaptive immune responses
Mobilize immune cells and macrophages
Enhance nonspecific defenses
Helper T Cells
Also called Killer T cells
Directly attack and kill APCs with recognzed foreign antigen/MHC complex on cell surface
Cytotoxic T cells
Release cytokines that suppress activity of T & B cells
Involved in ending/cleaning up response
Suppressor T cells
Release cytokines to active macrophages in delayed hypersensitivity reactions
Delayed hypersensitivity cells
Small intestinal population of T cells
Gamma-delta T cells
Prevention of Rejection or an Organ Transplant
Both blood group & MHC are typed to match
Conditons whre the production or function of immune cells, phagoctyes or complement is impaired or abnormal
Syndrome that is congenital and results from deficits in both T and B cells
Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SCID)
condition in which the body produces antibodies and activated cytotoxic T cells that target and destroy one's own body tissue
Types of Hypersensitivity
Hypersensitivity where contact with allergen sensitizes individual; second contact results in swelling