Endocrine Key Points.txt

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aleshamay
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141888
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Endocrine Key Points.txt
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2012-03-15 23:10:52
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Endocrine Key Points
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Endocrine Key Points
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  1. What does the level of hormones in blood depend on?
    Feedback
  2. What is negative feedback?
    gland responds by increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone based on feedback from various factors
  3. Which glands communicate between nervous and endocrine systems?
    Hypothalamus and pituitary
  4. What are several hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary referred to as?
    "Tropic hormones"
  5. Why?
    They control the secretion of hormones by other glands
  6. What are the anterior pituitary hormones?
    • -Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
    • -Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
    • -Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • -Gonadotropic hormones (Follicle-stimulating (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone LH)
    • -Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    • -Prolactin
    • -Oxytocin
  7. What does the TSH do?
    stimulates thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones
  8. What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone do?
    stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids
  9. What does the FSH do?
    stimulates secretion of estrogen and the development of ova in the female and sperm in the male
  10. What does the LH do?
    stimulates ovulation in the female and secretion of sex hormones in both male and female
  11. Where does the growth hormone have an effect?
    all body tissues
  12. What does the antidiuretic hormone do?
    regulates fluid volume by stimulating reabsorpiton of water in the kidneys
  13. What does oxytocin to?
    stimulates ejection of milk into mammary ducts and contraction of uterine smooth muscle
  14. What is the major funcion of the thyroid gland?
    Production, storage, release of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
  15. What is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones?
    iodine
  16. What do hormones T4 & T3 affect?
    metabolic rate, carb and lipid metabolism, growth and development, and nervous system activities
  17. What is calcitonin produced by?
    C cells (parafollicular cells)
  18. What is calcitonin produced in response to?
    High circulating calcium levels
  19. Where are parathyroid glands located?
    behind each thyroid lobe in pairs
  20. What do the parathyroid glands do?
    secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  21. What does the PTH do?
    regulates blood level of calcium
  22. Where are the adrenal glands located?
    Upper portion of kidneys
  23. What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
    catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
  24. What does the adrenal cortex secret?
    cortisol
  25. What is cortisol and what does it do?
    Most abundant and potent glucocorticoid, necessary to maintain life. Fx: regulate bolood glucose concentration, inhibition of inflammatory action, and support in response to stress
  26. What is aldosterone and what does it do?
    potent mineralocorticoid. Fx: maintains extracellular fluid volume
  27. The adrenal cortex secretes small amounts of androgens. What do adrenal androgens do?
    Stimulate pubic and acillary hair growth and sex drive in females
  28. What main hormones does the pancreas secrete and what do they do?
    • -Glucagon-increases blood glucose by stimulating glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis
    • -Insulin-regulates metabolism and storage of ingested carbs, fats, and proteins
  29. What does normal aging result in regarding the endocrine system?
    decreased hormone production and secretion, altered hormone metabolism and biologic activity, decreased responsiveness of target tissues to hormones, and alterations in circadian rhythms
  30. Subtle changes of aging often mimic what?
    manifestations of endocrine disorders
  31. What may endocrine dysfunction result from?
    deficient or excessive hormone secretion, transport abnormalities, inability of target tissue to respond to a hormone, or inappropriate stimulation of target tissue receptor
  32. What should the nurse ask the patient about regarding and endocrine assessment?
    Uses of hormone replacements, previous hospitalizations, surgery, chemo, radiation (especially of the neck)
  33. When it comes to a physical exam, what may a nurse want to look do?
    Assess skin color, texture of skin, hair, and nails, palpate skin for texture and presence of moisture, palpate thyroid for nodules or any abnorms, watch thyroid gland during swallowing, proportions of hand and feet size, hair distribution of genetalia.
  34. What can endocrine disorders commonly cause changes it?
    mental or emotional status
  35. What lab tests can be done?
    • -Blood & urine
    • -Ultrasound-screening tool used to localize endocrine growths such as thyroid nodules
    • -Hormone levels

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