Endocrine Key Points.txt
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What does the level of hormones in blood depend on?
What is negative feedback?
gland responds by increasing or decreasing the secretion of a hormone based on feedback from various factors
Which glands communicate between nervous and endocrine systems?
Hypothalamus and pituitary
What are several hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary referred to as?
They control the secretion of hormones by other glands
What are the anterior pituitary hormones?
- -Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin
- -Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) or thyrotropin
- -Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
- -Gonadotropic hormones (Follicle-stimulating (FSH) and Luteinizing hormone LH)
- -Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
What does the TSH do?
stimulates thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormones
What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone do?
stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete corticosteroids
What does the FSH do?
stimulates secretion of estrogen and the development of ova in the female and sperm in the male
What does the LH do?
stimulates ovulation in the female and secretion of sex hormones in both male and female
Where does the growth hormone have an effect?
all body tissues
What does the antidiuretic hormone do?
regulates fluid volume by stimulating reabsorpiton of water in the kidneys
What does oxytocin to?
stimulates ejection of milk into mammary ducts and contraction of uterine smooth muscle
What is the major funcion of the thyroid gland?
Production, storage, release of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
What is necessary for the synthesis of thyroid hormones?
What do hormones T4 & T3 affect?
metabolic rate, carb and lipid metabolism, growth and development, and nervous system activities
What is calcitonin produced by?
C cells (parafollicular cells)
What is calcitonin produced in response to?
High circulating calcium levels
Where are parathyroid glands located?
behind each thyroid lobe in pairs
What do the parathyroid glands do?
secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH)
What does the PTH do?
regulates blood level of calcium
Where are the adrenal glands located?
Upper portion of kidneys
What does the adrenal medulla secrete?
catecholamines, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine
What does the adrenal cortex secret?
What is cortisol and what does it do?
Most abundant and potent glucocorticoid, necessary to maintain life. Fx: regulate bolood glucose concentration, inhibition of inflammatory action, and support in response to stress
What is aldosterone and what does it do?
potent mineralocorticoid. Fx: maintains extracellular fluid volume
The adrenal cortex secretes small amounts of androgens. What do adrenal androgens do?
Stimulate pubic and acillary hair growth and sex drive in females
What main hormones does the pancreas secrete and what do they do?
- -Glucagon-increases blood glucose by stimulating glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis
- -Insulin-regulates metabolism and storage of ingested carbs, fats, and proteins
What does normal aging result in regarding the endocrine system?
decreased hormone production and secretion, altered hormone metabolism and biologic activity, decreased responsiveness of target tissues to hormones, and alterations in circadian rhythms
Subtle changes of aging often mimic what?
manifestations of endocrine disorders
What may endocrine dysfunction result from?
deficient or excessive hormone secretion, transport abnormalities, inability of target tissue to respond to a hormone, or inappropriate stimulation of target tissue receptor
What should the nurse ask the patient about regarding and endocrine assessment?
Uses of hormone replacements, previous hospitalizations, surgery, chemo, radiation (especially of the neck)
When it comes to a physical exam, what may a nurse want to look do?
Assess skin color, texture of skin, hair, and nails, palpate skin for texture and presence of moisture, palpate thyroid for nodules or any abnorms, watch thyroid gland during swallowing, proportions of hand and feet size, hair distribution of genetalia.
What can endocrine disorders commonly cause changes it?
mental or emotional status
What lab tests can be done?
- -Blood & urine
- -Ultrasound-screening tool used to localize endocrine growths such as thyroid nodules
- -Hormone levels
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