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violates both relational and conversational rules and is often considered a negative violation of expectations. It can harm our relationships.
Eckman defines as a one person intending to mislead another, doing so deliberately, without prior notification and without being asked to do so.
Two types of lies:
- Benevolent – lies meant to “help” the other person; preserve the relationship
- Malicious – lies intended to harm another individual
is when the liar withholds some information without actually saying anything untrue
an additional step is taken. The liar withholds true information but also presents false information
indirect or ambiguous statement. Instead of saying you hate your friend’s hair, you might say “it’s the latest style”
overstate or exaggerate the truth
minimize the truth or downplay it
When there is a choice in how to lie, people prefer
concealing to falsifying Why?
- It’s easier
- Its seems less responsible
- It is much easier to cover up or save face if discovered
Motives for Lying
Partner-focused, Self-focused, Relationship-focused
don’t want to hurt feelings or to help person maintain self-esteem
want to enhance or protect our own self image
limit relationship harms or conflicts