13.1-13.2

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Author:
DesLee26
ID:
141991
Filename:
13.1-13.2
Updated:
2012-03-16 15:04:38
Tags:
Anatomy Physiology
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Description:
Cardiovascular System
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  1. What is a functional cardiovascular system vital for?
    supplying oxygen and nutrients to tissues and removing wastes from them
  2. What is the structure of the heart?
    a hollow, cone-shaped, muscular pump within the thoracic cavity
  3. Size and Location of the Heart
    1. The average adult heart is __ long and __ wide.
    2. The heart lies in the __ under the __; its __ extends to the __.
    • 1) 14 cm/ 9 cm
    • 2) mediastinum/ sternum/ apex/ fifth intercostal space
  4. Coverings of the Heart
    1) The __ encloses the heart.
    2) It is made of __ layers: __ and __
    3) At the base fo the heart, the __ folds back to become the __ that lines the __.
    4)Between the __ and __ is a potential space (__) filled with __.
    • 1) pericardium
    • 2) two/ the outer, tough connective tissue fibrous pericardium surrounding a more delicate visceral pericardium (epicardium) that surrounds the heart
    • 3) visceral pericardium/ parietal pericardium/ fibrous pericardium
    • 4) parietal and visceral pericardia/ pericardial cavity/ serous fluid
  5. Wall of the Heart
    1) The wall of the heart is composed of __ distinct layers.
    2) The outermost layer, the __, is made up of connective tissue and epithelium, and houses __ and __, along with __.
    3) The middle __ consists of __ and is the __ layer of the heart wall.
    4) The inner __ is __ and made up of connective tissue and epithelium, and is continuous with the __ of major vessels joining the heart.
    • 1) three
    • 2) epicardium/ blood and lymph capillaries/ coronary arteries
    • 3) myocardium/ cardiac muscle/ thickest
    • 4) endocardium/ smooth/ endothelium
  6. Heart Chambers and Valves
    1) The heart has __ internal chambers: two __ on top and two __ below.
    1a) __ receive blood returning to the heart and have thin walls.
    1b) The thick-muscled __ pump blood to the body.
    • 1) four/ atria/ ventricles
    • 1a) atria
    • 1b) ventricles
  7. Heart Chambers and Valves
    2) A __ divides the __ and __ each guarded by an __.
    2a) The right __ valve (__) and left __ valve (__) have __ to which __ attach.
    2b) __ are, in turn, attached to __ in the inner heart wall that contract during __ to prevent the __ of blood through the __.
    • 2) septum/ atrium/ ventricles/ atrioventricular valve (A-V0
    • 2a) A-V (tricuspid)/ A-V (bicuspid or mitral valve)/ cusps/ chordae tendinae
    • 2b) Chordae tendinae/ papillary muscles/ ventricular contraction/ backflow/ A-V valves
  8. Heart Chambers and Valves
    3) Why does the right ventricle have a thinner wall than the left ventricle?
    because the right ventricle must pump blood only as far as the lungs, compared to the left ventricle pumping to the entire body
  9. Heart Chambers and Valves
    4) At the base of the __ trunk leading to the lungs is the __, which prevents __?__.
    5) The __ receives blood from __.
    6) The __ pumps blood into the entire body through the __, guarded by the __ that prevents __ of blood into the __.
    • 4) pulmonary/ pulmonary valve/ a return flow of blood to the ventricle
    • 5) left atrium/ four pulmonary veins
    • 6) left ventricle/ aorta/ aortic valve/ backflow/ ventricle
  10. Path of Blood through the Heart
    1) Blood low in __ returns to the __ via the __.
    2) The __ contracts, forcing blood through the __ into the __.
    3) The __ contracts, closing the __, and forcing blood through the __ into the __ and __.
    • 1) oxygen/ right atrium/ venae cavae and coronary sinus
    • 2) right atrium/ tricuspid valve/ right ventricle
    • 3) right ventricle/ tricuspid valve/ pulmonary valve/ pulmonary trunk and arteries
  11. Path of Blood through the Heart
    4) The __ carry blood to the lungs where it can rid itself of excess __ and pick up a new supply of __.
    5) Freshly __ blood is returned to the __ of the heart through the __.
    • 4) pulmonary arteries/ carbon dioxide/ oxygen
    • 5) oxygenated blood/ left atrium/ pulmonary veins
  12. Path of Blood through the Heart
    6) The __ contracts, forcing blood through the left __ into the __.
    7) The __ contracts, closing the __ and forcing open the __ as blood enters the __ for distribution to the body.
    • 6) left atrium/ bicuspid valve/ left ventricle
    • 7) left ventricle/ bicuspid valve/ aortic valve/ aorta
  13. Blood Supply to the Heart
    1) The first branches off of the __, which carry freshly __ blood, are the __ that feed the heart muscle itself.
    2) Branches of the __ feed many __ of the __.
    3) The heart muscle requires a continuous supply of freshly __ blood.
    4) __ drain blood from the heart muscle and carry it to the __, which empties into the __.
    • 1) aorta/ oxygenated/ right and left coronary arteries
    • 2) coronary arteries/ capillaries/ myocardium
    • 3) oxygenated
    • 4) cardiac veins/ coronary sinus/ right atrium

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