Chapter 6 Terms: Emotional and Social Development in Infants and Toddlers
What is the conflict of toddlerhood according to Erikson?
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
What are the Basic Emotions?
happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness and disgust
What 2 states of arousal do newborns have?
withdrawal and attraction
What is the social smile in happiness? What age does it occur (months)?
smile elicited by the child at the sight of the parent's broad grin. Between 6 to 10 weeks. By 8 to 10 months, they smile at everyone (have the appropriate muscle development)
What is stranger anxiety? Is it cross cultural?
the fear of unfamiliar adults. No it is not.In west Africa, infant survival is safeguarded by a collective caregiving system (passed from one adult to the other).
Once wariness develops, what is the secure base?
the secure base is the familiar parent the infant uses as a jumping off point to explore and then returning for support
What is social referencing?
the active seeking of emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation.
What are self conscious emotions? What do they require to develop?
Guilt, shame, envy, embarressment,pride. Require a sense of self
What is emotional self regulation?
the voluntary regulation of emotion to keep it at a comfortable level of intensity. (babies often overwhelmed until cerebral cortex development can increase their tolerance)
What is temperament?
level of reactivity and self regulation of emotional arousal and intensity.
Describe the easy child.
generally cheerful, adapts easily, establishes regular routines
Describe the difficult child.
irregular daily routines, reacts negatively
Describe the slow to warm up child.
inactive, low reactions to stimuli, negative mood, adjusts slowly to novel experiences
What does the Thomas and Chess investigation demonstrate? What did they determine about parenting practices and children's temperament?
that temperament can increase a child's chances of experiencing psychological problems or protect a child from the negative effects of a stressful home.They determined parenting practices can modify child's temperaments.
In temperament, what is effortful control?
The capacity to voluntarily suppress a dominant response in order to plan and execute a more adaptive response.
What is the inhibited child?
a child who reacts negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli
What is the uninhibited child?
a child who displays positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli
What is the goodness of fit model proposed by Thomas & Chess?
describes how envionment and temperament work together to produce favourable outcomes. Involves creating child rearing environments that recognize a childs temperament while encouraging more adaptive functioning.
What is attachment?
Strong affectionate tie with parents
What is the ethological theory of attachment?
The widely accepted view that the emotional tie between mom and child is a evolved response promoting survival
What is separation anxiety?
the anxiety displayed by babies at 6-8 months in which they get upset when their parent leaves
According to Bowlby (eth theory of attachment), infants use the secure base in the abscence of their caregiver. This secure base serves as what?
an internal working model.
What is the purpose of the experiment Strange Situation?
Determines what type of secure attachment pattern the baby shows.
I.e. It takes the baby through different episodes, separated from caregiver in an unfamiliar place.
What is secure attachment?
Infants who have secure attachment use the parent as a secure base. When parent returns, crying (if any) stops immediately.
What is avoidant attachment?
Unresponsive infants when parent is there and when they arent there
What is resistant attachment?
infants who seek closeness and fail to explore and then when left alone is very distressed. Reacts angrily.
What is disorganized/disoriented attachment?
greatest insecurity pattern in which babies show confused behaviours like looking away when parent holds them or approaching with sad manner.
What is the attachment Q sort?
an alternative method to the strange situation for older children
Is there cross cultural difference in attachment?
As a factor that affects attachment security, what is sensitive caregiving?
responding promptly and consistently to infants and holding them carefully
What is self recognition? What age does it occur?
identification of the self as a physically unique being. Occurs around age 2.
What is the categorical self?
developed between 18 and 30 months, a classification of the self based on age, physical characteristics or even good and bad
What is compliance?
In self control, the awareness of caregiver's wishes, obedience to demands. Develops around 12-18months
What is the delay of gratification?
A way of studying self control in children that requires them to wait for the appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act. E.g. the marshmellow task