Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood.
What area of the brain carries out skilled motor action?
the dominant cerebral hemisphere.
What is the cerebellum?
the structure at the base of the brain controlling balance and body movement.
What is the hippocampus?
The innerbrain structure that plays a vital tole in memory and spatial maps. Develops rapidly in early childhood
What is the corpus callosum?
a large bundle of fibres consisting of gray matter connecting 2 cerebral hemispheres. Allow for laterialization.
What is the pituitary gland?
a gland located at the base of the brain releasing two main growth hormones: growth hormone and thyroid stimulating hormone.
What is growth hormone (GH) required for?
development of all bodily tissues except for CNS and genitalia.
What is thyroid stimulating hormone required for?
produces thyroxin which is required for proper brain development and for growth hormone to have its full effect.
What is the difference in motor development between early childhood and toddlerhood?
increased balance, speed, and endurance
What is the preoperational stage?
the next stage of Piagets stages where there is an increase in representational or symbolic activity.
What is make believe play?
play that demonstrates the development of repsentation. Play detaches from real life conditions, becomes less self centered and includes sociodramatic play: make believe with others
toddlers have trouble with dual representation, what is this?
viewing a symbolic object both as an object and a symbol. e.g. not realizing a model room could represent a real room (to find snoopy)
What is egocentrisim?
failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from ones own.
what is animistic thinking?
believing that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities like thoughts, wishes and feelings
egocentric bias prevents preschoolers from accomodating. What is this?
from reflecting and revising faulty reasoning
What is conservation?
certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes.
what is centration?
focusing on one aspect of a situation and neglecting other important features. e.g. centering on the height of water in one cup in the conservation task
what is irreversibility?
the inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then return to the starting point. This is because reversibility is part of a logical operation and in the preoperational stage, children are not capable of logical operations
What is Vygotskis private speech?
self directed speech (piagets egocentric speech)
What is vytgotskis scaffolding?
adjusting the support offered during a teaching session (parent and child) to fir the child's current level of performance.
What zone did vytogotski believe childrens learning took place?
the zone of proximal development, a range of tasks too difficult for the child to take on alone.
what are memory strategies used by children?
recall is worse than recognition. children use memory stragetgies such as recall to improve their chances of remembering
What are scripts?
the memory of familiar events in terms of general descriptions of what occurs and when
What is metacognition?
higher thought processing, thinking about thinking.
What is emergent literacy in early literacy?
the effort to construct literacy through informal experiences. presschoolers do not yet understand the symbolic funtion of elements of print. e.g. APLS BNS 5c
What is phonological awareness?
the ability to reflect on and manipulate the sound structure of spoken language. a strong predictor of literacy knowledge.
Mathematical reasoning. What is ordinality?
order relationships. mastered by age 14 and 16 months.
Mathematical reasoning. What is cardinality?
the last number in a counting sequence to indicate the quantity of items in a set. mastered by age 3-4.
What are child centered programs?
a type of program for preschoolers where activities where learning takes place through play. e.g. the montessori education
What are academic programs?
a type of program for preschoolers where learning structured by children, using repetition and drill
What is project head start?
an intervention for at risk preschoolers providing preschool and nutrition and health services. Parents are central to this program serving on policy councils and contributing to program planning.
Language development. What is fast mapping?
children build vocabs quickly by connecting new words with underlying concepts after only a brief encounter.
What is overregularization?
a type of error in which children overextend rules to words that are exceptions. e.g. "my toy car breaked"
What are pragmatics?
the social side of language. children are skilled conversationalists by age 2
What are recasts and expansions?
wayys of supporting language development in early childhood.
Recats:restructuring inaccurate speech into correct form. Expansions: elaborating on childresn speech to increase its complexicty.