PELVIC LIMB 1B

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Anonymous
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14202
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PELVIC LIMB 1B
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2010-04-13 20:14:18
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SGU ANATOMY
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PELVIC LIMB
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  1. WHAT IS THE RULE WHEN TALKING ABOUT PELVIS FRACTURE?
    IF 1 FRACTURE SEEM, LOOK FOR 2 MORE ( 1 MAY A LUXATION OF HIP )
  2. WHAT SHOULD NOT BE MISTAKEN FOR AN AVULSION OF THE TIBIAL TUBEROSITY?
    GROWTH PLATE / PHYSIS OF TIBIAL TUBEROSITY
  3. HOW DOES THE FOVEA CAPITIS OF THE FEMUR APPEAR IN RADIOGRAPHS?
    NORMAL FLATTENING OF FEMORAL HEAD IF POSITIONED RIGHT / SCREEN.
  4. HOW IS A DOG PLACED FOR A HIP DYSPLASIA VIEW?
    DORSAL RECUMBENCY, LIMBS PULLED CAUDALLY & ROTATED SLIGHTLY MEDIALLY = FEMURS PARALLEL, PATELLAS CENTERD IN FEMORAL TROCHLEA. SUPER IMPOSE FEMURS & THE ISCHIATIC TUBEROSITY.
  5. HOW MUST THE PELVIS BE PLACED IN A HIP DYSPLASIA VIEW? WHY?
    LEVEL ( NO ROTATION OR 1 ACETABULM LOOKS DEEP OTHER SHALLOW )
  6. HOW DO YOU CHECK FOR ROTATION OF THE PELVIS IN A HIP DYSPLASIA VIEW?
    COMPARE SYMETRY OF ABTURATOR FOREMEN & SACROILIAC JOINTS
  7. WHAT RADIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS OF HIP DYSPLASIA COMES FIRST TO MIND?
    < 50% OF FEMORAL HEAD INSIDE DORSAL RIM OF ACELABULUM
  8. WHAT IS REQUIRED TO EVALUATE COXOFEMORAL LUXATION RADIOGRAPHICALLY?
    REQUIRES 2 VIEWS TO ASCERTAIN DIRECTION OF LUXATION ( CRANIODORSAL MOST COMMON )
  9. IN YOUNG DOGS, WHAT BONE HAS A GROWTH PLATE WHICH LOOKS LIKE A FRACTURE?
    TIBIAL TUBEROSITY
  10. WHAT DOES A SKYLINE / TANGENTIAL VIEW OF THE STIFLE SHOW?
    DEPTH OF TROCHLEAR GROOVE, PATELLA & FEN ROPATELLAR JOINT SPACE.
  11. ON THE MEDIOLATERAL PROJECTION OF THE STIFE WHAT IS THE RADIOLUCENT ( FAT ) DENSITY SEEN IN THE TRIANGLE FORMED BY THE FEMUR, TIBIA AND DISTAL PATELLAR LIGAMENT?
    SUBPATELLAR FAT PAD.
  12. WHAT ARE THE FOUR SESAMOID BONES THAT SHOULD NOT BE MISTAKEN FOR FRACTURE FRAGMENTS IN RADIOGRAPHS OF THE STIFLE JOINT?
    PATELLA, 2 SESAMOIDS OF GASTROCNEMIUSMUSDE & SESAMOID IN POPLITEAL TENDON.
  13. HOW DOES AN ANIMAL WITH HYPERTOPHIC OSTEODYSTROPHY ( HOD ) PRESENT?
    YOUNG DOG, SWELLING AROUND THE METAPHY-SEAL REGION OF LONG BONES OF LIMBS, FEVER, & LAMENESS.
  14. WHAT ARE THE CLASSIC RADIOGRAPHIC SIGNS OF HYPERTOPHIC OSTEODYSTROPHY ( HOD )?
    BONE CUFFING AROUND THE METAPHYSEAL REGION & DOUBLE PHYSES.
  15. WHAT IS HYPERTROPHIC OSTEOPATHY ( HO )?
    LAMELLAR PERIOSTEAL PROLIFERATION ON LONG BONES OF EXTREMITIES ASSOCIATED WITH SPACE OCCUPYING LESION OF THORAX CAUSING LAMENESS & PAIN.
  16. WHAT IS SEEN RADIOGRAPHICALLY IN HYPERTOPHIC OSTEOPATHY ( HO )?
    PERIOSTEAL PROLIFERAZTION AROUND THE DIAPHYSES OF AFFECTED BONES.
  17. WHAT IS THE TREATMENT FOR HYPERTROPHIC OSTEOPATHY ( HO )?
    TREATING ASSOCIATED THORACIC LESION USUALLY RESULTS IN REGRESSION OF BONY LESIONS
  18. WHAT IS CLASSICALLY SEEN ON RADIPGRAPHS OF PANOSTEITIS ( INFLAMATION OF LONG BONES )?
    NODULAR OPACITIES TO COMPLETE OPACIFICATION OF MEDULLARY CAVITIES, MOST PROMINENT NEAR THE NUTRIENT FORAMEN. RESOLTION MAY LEAVE A VACANT LOOK TO THE MEDULLARY CAVITY ( DARK ) WITH A COURSE TRABECULAR PATTERN.
  19. HOW IS A RECURRENT DISLOCATING PATELLA EVALUATED RADIPGRAPHICALLY?
    SKYLINE VIEW OF SHALLOW FEMORAL TROCHLEAR ( PATELLAR ) GROOVE.
  20. HOW IS THE LATERAL SIDE OF THE DP VIEW OF THE TARSUS EASILY IDENTIFIED?
    FOURTH TARSAL / " 2 STAORY " BONE: LATERAL.
  21. WHAT IS THE RADIOGRAPHIC LANDMARK FOR THE TARSUS ? WHAT DOES IT TELL YOU?
    CALCANEUS, LATERAL & PALMAR SIDES.
  22. WHAT TARSAL SURFACES ARE HIGHLIGHTED INI A DLPMO VIEW?
    DORSOMEDIAL & PL SIDES OF TARSUS.
  23. WHAT IS THE MOST FREQUNTLY FRACTURED BONE OF THE BODY?
    FEMUR.
  24. WHAT STRUCTURES MUST BE TAKEN INTO CONSIDERATION WHEN FIXING FEMUR DIAPHYSIS FRACTURES?
    FEMORAL a. & v. ON MEDIAL SIDE, SCIATIC n. CAUDAL TO FEMUR.
  25. WHERE IS THE DISTAL FRAGMENT FOUND IN MID SHAFT FRACTURES OF THE FEMUR? ( WHY )?
    DISPLACED CAUDALLY ( PULL OF CAUDAL mm. )
  26. HOW ARE TROCHANTER FRACTURES TREATED SURGICALLY?
    TENSION BAND TO COUNTERACT PULL OF GLUTEAL MUSCLES.
  27. WHEN DO THE OSSIFICATION CENTERS OF THE PELVIC LIMB CLOSE?
    MOST BY 1 YEAR EXCEPT CREST OF ILIUM: 2 1/2 YEAR & PELVIC SYMPHYSIS: 5-6 YEAR.
  28. WHERE IS A BONE MARROW TAP EASILY PERFORMED?
    THROUGH THE TROCHANTERIC FOSSA.
  29. WHAT IS THE LANDMARK FOR THE TARSUS? WHAT DOES IT TELL YOU?
    CALCANEUS, LATERAL & PALMAR SIDES.
  30. HOW ARE CALCANEAL FRACTURES TREATED?
    REQUIRES COUNTERACTING PULL OF THE CALCANEAN TENDON ( ex. TENSION BAND OR PLATES )
  31. WHAT IS HIP DYSPLASIA?
    CONGENITIAL COXAL JOINT INSTABILITY WITH SLIGHT SUBLUXATION TO COMPLETE LUXATION OF FEMORAL HEAD FROM ACETABULUM THAT PROGRESSES TO DEGENERATIVE JOINT DISEASE ( DID ).
  32. WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON DISLOCATION OF TH HIP?
    DORSOCRANIAL LUXATION DUE TO PULL OF GLUTEAL MUSCLES.
  33. WHAT MUST BE DAMAGED WHEN THE HIP DISLOCATES?
    LIGAMENT OF HEAD OF FEMUR TORN.
  34. HOW DO YOU PALPATE FOR DORSOCRANIAL LUXATION OF THE HIP?
    " THUMB" /TROCHANTER DISPLACEMENT TEST" THUMB BETWEEN GREATER TROCHANTER & ISCLATIC TUBEROSITY, ROTATE FEMUR LATERALLY: THUMBFORCED OUT HIP OK; NOT IF HIP LUXATED OR HEAD / NECK FRACTURES OF FEMUR.
  35. HOW IS A DORSOCRANIALLY LUXATED FEMUR REDUCED?
    GENERAL ANESTHESIA: EXTERNALLY ROTATE FEMUR, DRAW FEMUR CAUDALLY & ROTATE MEDIALLY.
  36. WHAT IS DONE IF A CRANIODORSAL LUXATED HIP EASILY LUXATED REPEATEDLY?
    DO NOT OPEN REDUCTION.
  37. DESCRIBE AN OPEN REDUCTION OF A LUXATED HIP?
    EXPOSE & CLEAN OUT THE ACETABULUM, REDUCE THE HEAD INTO THE ACETABULUM USE A STABILIZING TECHNIQUE.
  38. PATELLAR LUXATION IS MORE COMMON IN CATS OR DOGS? SMALL BREES OR LARGE BREEDS? TO LATERAL OR MEDIAL SIDE?
    DOGS>CATS, TOY>>LARGER BREEDS, MEDIAL>LATERAL IN EVERY SIZE / BREED CATEGORY.
  39. WHAT PHYSICAL MANIPULATION IS DIAGNOSTIC FOR RUPTURE OF THE CRANIAL CRUCIATE LIGAMENT?
    CRANIAL DRAWER SIGN.
  40. WHAT THREE STRUCTURES ARE COMMONLY INJURED WITH CAR CONTACT TO THE LATERAL SIDE OF THR STIFE?
    RUPTURE OF CRANIAL CRUCIAE LIG; TEAR OF MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT; TEAR OF MEDIAL MENISCUS.
  41. LIST A FEW SURGICAL PROCEDURES FOR RUPTURED CRANIAL CRUCIATE LIGAMENT.
    PATELLAR TENDON REPLACEMENT, FIBULAR HEAD TRANSPOSTION AND IMBRICATION.
  42. HOW IS TRSAL SUBLUXATION OR LUXATION TREATED?
    ARTHRODESIS ( FUSE JOINT ) ( BY CURETTING OFF CARTILAGE, ADDING CANCELLOUS BONE 7 PIN, BONE PLATE, OR TENTION BAND WIRE TO IMMOBILIZER
  43. IN A DORSAL HIP APPROACH, WHAT STRUCTURE MUST BE AVOIDED?
    ISCHIATIC NERVE & CAUDAL GLUTEAL VESSELS
  44. WHERE SHOULD INJECTION INTO THE " HAMSTRINGS" BE GIVEN? WHY?
    LATERAL OR MEDIAL TO JUNCTION OF THE BICEPS FEMORIS & SEMITENDINOUS MUSCLES TO PROTECT ISCHIATIC NERVE.
  45. WHAT MUSCEL IS CUT TO RELIEVE THE PAIN OF HIP DYSPLASIA IN THE DOG?
    PECTINEUS - PECTINEAL TENOTOMY
  46. WHAT IS THE MOST COMMON PROCEDURE TO CHECK THE RELEXES OF THE PELVIC LIMB?
    PATELLAR TAP ( REFLEX )
  47. WHAT IS FIBROTIC MYOPATHY ( CONTRACTURE )?
    SECONDARY TO INJURY=SHORTENING DUE TO SCARING, WHICH RESULT IN GAIT ABNORMALITIES
  48. LIST THE MUSCELS INVOLVED WITH INJURY TO THE FEMORAL, OBTURATOR, COMMON FIBULAR ( PERSONEAL ) NERVES? ( CLINICAL SIGNS)
    • FEMORAL: QUADRICEPS ( CAN'T BEAR WEIGHT) OBTURATOR: ADDUCTOR MM. ( DOWNERANIMAL / SLIP SIDEWAYS).
    • -COMMON FIBULAR: EXTENSORS OF DIGITS ( KNUCKLING OVER )
  49. WHERE IS A GOOD PLACE TO TAKE THE PULSE IN CARNIVORES?
    FEMORAL ARTERY IN FEMORAL TRIANGLE.
  50. WHERE IS VENIPUNCTURE PERFORMED IN THE PELVIC LIMB OF THE DOG?
    LATERAL SAPHENOUS VEIN WHERE IT CROSSES LATERAL LEG ( CRANIAL BRANCH ) OR EASIER: JUST DISTAL TO ITS DIVING INTO HAMSTRING MUSCLES.
  51. WHERE IS VENIPUNCTURE PERFORMED IN THE PELVIC LIMB OF THE CAT?
    MEDIAL SAPHENOUS VEIN.
  52. WHERE CAN THE PULSE BE TAKEN IN CARNIVORES IF THE FEMORAL ARTERY IN INACCESSIBLE AS DURING SURGERY?
    DORSAL PEDAL, BRACHIAL, LINGUAL, OR COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES.
  53. WHAT RESULTS FROM FEMORAL NERVE INJURY AND WHY?
    CANT BEAR WEIGHT, CANT EXTEND STIFLE-ANALGESIA TO MEDIAL LIMB ( SAPHENOUS NERVE)
  54. INJURY TO WHAT NERVE CAN CAUSE LATERAL SLIPPING AN A SLICK SURFACE?
    OBTURATOR NERVE
  55. WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF FIBULAR ( PERONEAL ) NERVE DAMAGE?
    KNUCKLING OVER, ANALGESIA OF DORSAL PES.
  56. HOW DOES AN ANIMAL COMPENSATE FOR PERONEAL NERVE DAMAGE?
    BY FLIPPING PAW AS ADVANCED
  57. WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF TIBIAL NERVE DAMAGE?
    LITTLE; CALCANEAN CLOSER TO GROUIND ANALGESIA: PLANTAR PES.
  58. WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF COMPLETE ISCHIATIC NERVE DAMAGE?
    UNSTABLE, CAN BEAR WEIGHT ( FEMORAL NERVE OK ); ANALGESIA ENTIRE LEG EXCEPT MEDIALLY.
  59. WHAT ARE THE MOST CLINICALLY SIGNIFICANT PELVIC LIMB NERVES?
    OBTURATOR ( IN LARGE ANIMALS ), ISCHIATIC ( TIBIAL & COMMON FIBULAR ), FEMORAL.
  60. WHAT IS THE REGION OF AROUND THE PELVIS, HINDQUARTERS, BUTTOCKS?
    RUMP OR GLUTEAL REGION.
  61. WHAT AREA CONTAINS THE FEMUR?
    THIGH
  62. WHAT IS THE AREA BETWEEN THE STIFLE JOINT & TARSUS?
    LEG
  63. WHAT IS THE FOLD OF THE FLANK?
    SKIN EXTENDING FROM PELVIC LIMB TO THE ABDOMINAL WALL.
  64. list the regions of the pelvic limb from proximal to distal
    rump / gluteal region, hip region, thigh, hamstring, popliteal, leg, pes.
  65. what joins the head of the femur with the body of the femur?
    neck of femur
  66. what are the two large knuckle-like structures on the distal femur?
    medial & lateral condyles
  67. what is the knee cap?
    patella
  68. what are the parts of the fibula?
    head, body & lateral malleolus ( distal part )
  69. of what does the proximal row of the taursus consist?
    talus, calcaneus ( heel bone )
  70. what is the heel bone?
    calcaneus
  71. what is the self of the calcaneus for lateral head of the deep?
    sustentaculum tali
  72. how does the dog's metatarus differ from the metacarpus?
    1st Mt more reduced, other Mt's slightly longer & dew claw usually absent.
  73. name the ball-and-socket joint of the pelvic limb?
    hip joint, coxofemoral, or coxal joint.
  74. does the cat have a sacrotuberous ligament?
    no
  75. how are the cruciate ligaments named?
    for their attachment to the tibia.
  76. what is the relationship between the collateral ligaments and the menisci of the stifle?
    medial attached to medial meniscus; lateral separated from lateral meniscus by popliteal tendon.
  77. what prevents over flexion of the tarsus?
    long plantar ligament
  78. what is the fascia lata?
    thick lateral deep femoral fascia over the lateral side of the thigh, also aponeurosis of the tensor fasciae lata m.
  79. what is the deep fascia over the leg?
    deep crural fascia: thick
  80. what is the extensor retinaculum of the rear limb?
    thickening of deep fascia hold down extensor tendons on dorsal tarsus.
  81. list the boundaries of the perineum.
    base of tail, ischiatic tuberosities, ventral to vulva or at proximal scrotum.
  82. wher do you place your fingers and thumb when expressing anal glands?
    ischiorectal fossa
  83. list three boundaries of the ischiorectal fossa.
    sacrotuberous ligament, pelvic floor covered by internal obturator muscle, pelvic diaphram.
  84. what is the perineal body?
    fibrous & muscular tissue uniting the anal canal & vagina or bulb od penis
  85. list the sublumbar muscles.
    psoas minor, iliopsoas & quadratus lumborum.
  86. the cranial thigh muscles ( quadriceps ) have what actions?
    extend stifle & flex hip
  87. what innervates the flexors of the digits and extensors of the tarsus?
    tibial nerve.
  88. list the adductor muscles supplied by the obturator nerve?
    pectineus, gracilis, adductor.
  89. what are the attachmentsof the SDF in the dogs pelvic limb?
    femur, calcaneus & middle phalanges of digits 2-5.
  90. what are the actions of the crural muscles?
    • craniolateral; extensors of digits & flexor of the tarus ( called extensors ).
    • - Caudal; flrxors of digits & extensors of the tarsus ( called flexors ).
  91. what is the innervation of the crural muscles?
    • craniolateral extensorsw; common fibular.
    • - caudal flexors; tibial.
  92. what form the common calcanean tendon?
    main; SDF, gastrocnemius, contibuting slips from biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gracilis; also soleus in cat.
  93. what part of the pelvic limb is between the stifle and the tarsus?
    crus or true leg
  94. what are the main extensors and flexors of the digits?
    • extensor; long & lateral digital extensors.
    • flexors: SDF & DDF
  95. what are the five terminal branches of the abdominal aorta?
    2 external iliac, 2 internal iliac & median sacral.
  96. what are the terminal branches of the internal iliac artery?
    internal pudendal & caudal gluteal arteries.
  97. what branch of the aorta is the main supply to the pelvic limb?
    external iliac artery.
  98. what is the largest branch of the popliteal artery?
    cranial tibial artery
  99. the cranial tibial artery continues as the ___________ on the tarsus?
    dorsal pedal artery.
  100. what is the palpable lymph node of the pelvic limb? where?
    popliteal lymph node, caudal to the stifle ( popliteal area ).
  101. what drains the groin, caudal mammary gland and scrotum?
    superficial inguinal lymph nodes ( palpable ).
  102. what nerve supplies motor innervation to the adductors of the thigh?
    obturator nerve.
  103. what does the common fibular ( personeal ) nerve innervate?
    craniolateral ( extensors of digits, flexors of hock ) & sensory to the skin of dorsal pes.
  104. what is innervated by the femoral nerve?
    • iliopsoas ( flexor of hip ) & quadriceps & mm.
    • (Extensors of stifle ) &sartorius.
  105. name the two terminal branches of the ischiatic nerve.
    tibial & common fibular ( peroneal ) nn.
  106. where is it easiest to identify the tibial nerve?
    diving between two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle.
  107. what is the cutaneous branch of the femoral nerve?
    saphenous nerve to medial limb.
  108. why can the acetabular rim be mistaken for a chip fracture in a radiograph?
    because it is an accessory ossification area.
  109. how does the head of the femur and the dorsal rim of the acetabulum appear in normal view?
    50-60% of head should be inside the rim.
  110. describe a OFA hip dysplasia view.
    VD hip - extended; dorsal recumbency, limbs pulled caudally & rotated slightly medially so femurs are parallel, patells centered in femoral trochlea, femura and ischiatic tuberosity superimpose, include the stifles & hip bones.
  111. when will the OFA ( orthopedic foundation for animals )certify a dog hip dysplasia free?
    after its 2 yrs old, from perfect dysplasia films.
  112. what is required to get proper hip dysplasia films to be certified by OFA?
    sedation or anesthesia, use of a grid, permanet labelling, markers, perfect postioning.
  113. what bones should the hip dysplasia VD view include?
    below stifle to just above hip bones.
  114. how does degenerative change ( djd, osteoarthrosis, osteoarthritis ) in hip dysplasia first show up?
    osteophyte proliferation - femoral neck usually where joint capsule attaches.
  115. list three rasiographic findings of hip dysplasia?
    shallow acetabulum, flattened & distorted femoral head < 50-60% of femoral head inside dorsal rim of acetabulum, thickened neck.
  116. what may osteophyte proliferation along the neck of the femur look like in hip dysplaisa?
    thickened neck of the femur.
  117. how is hi dysplasia radiograph evaluated for correct positioning?
    obturator formen equal, sacroiliac joints.
  118. what are the proliferation along the edges of a cup of the acetabulum called in hip dysplasia?
    spurring.
  119. why do you look for three fractures if a pelvis is fractured?
    pelvis is a box, if it breaks in one part, it has to break in two more locations in order to displace.
  120. on the mediolateral projection of the stifle what is the radiolucent ( fat) density seen in the triangle formed by the femur, tibia & diswtal patellar ligament?
    subpatellar fat pad.
  121. what is hypertrophic asteopahty ( ho )?
    lamellar periosteal proliferation on long bones of extremities due to chronic disease usually within thorax causing lameness & pain.
  122. how do you recognize a view as being oblique?
    view enough DP and lateral films, recognize as not either.
  123. what structure is second to the femur in occurence of fractures?
    hip bones ( ossa coxae ).
  124. where is the distal fragment found in mid shaft fractures of the femur?
    displaced caudally ( pull of caudal mm).
  125. what is hip dysplasia?
    congenital coxal joint instability with slight subluxation to complete luxation of femoral head from acetabulum that progressses to degenerative joint disease ( DJD ).
  126. HOW DO THE LIMBS APPEAR WHEN THE CAUDALLY EXTENDED IF THERE IS CRANIODORSAL LUXATION OF THE HIP?
    SHORTER IN CAUDAL EXTENTION & LATERALLY ROTATED.
  127. HOW DOES A DOG PRESENT WITH CRANIODORSAL LUXATION OF THE HIP?
    NON WEIGHT BEARING LAMENESS, LIMBABDUCTED IN A CRANIODORSAL DIRECTION & EXTERNALLY ROTATED.
  128. HOW IS THE "THUMB ( TROCHANTERIC DISPLACEMENT) TEST" PREFORMED?
    THUMB PUSHED BETWEEN GREATER TROCHANTER & ISCHIAL TUBEROSITY & THE FEMUR EXTERNALLY ROTATE.
  129. WHAT OCCURS WITH THE " THUMB TEST" TO A NORMAL DOG?
    THUMB WILL BE PUSHED OUT.
  130. WHAT CONDITION ARE INDICATED IF THE THUMB IS FORCED FROM BETWEEN THE GREATER TROCHANTER AND ISCHIATIC TUBEROSITY BY ROTATION OF THE FEMUR LATERALLY:
    FRACTURE OF NECK / HEAD OF FEMUR OR LUXATION OF HIP.
  131. DESCRIBE A CLOSED REDUCTION CRANIODORSAL HIP LUXATION.
    GENERAL ASESTHESIA, EXTERNALLY ROTATE THE FEMUR MOVING THE HEAD OVER & AWAY FROM THE ILIUM. PULL THE LIMB DISTALLY & THEN ROTATE FEMUR INTERNALLY SO THE HEAD SNAPS INTO THE ACETABULUM.
  132. WHAT CAUSES THE OCCASIONALLY SEEN CAUDOVENTRALLY DIRECTION? WHERE DOES THE HEAD OF THE FEMUR END UP?
    FALLS, FEMORAL FEAD GOING INTO THE OBTURATOR FORAMEN.
  133. IN WHICH BREEDS DOES RECURRENT LUXATION OF THE PATELLA OCCUR?
    TOY BREEDS, MEDIALLY.
  134. HOW IS PATELLAR LUXATION DIAGNOSED?
    EXTEND THE LIMB & ASSEAA LUXATION.
  135. WHAT DOES A SKYLINE RADIOGRAPH OF A PATELLAR LUXATION USUALLY SHOW?
    SHALLOW PATELLAR ( TROCHLEAR ) GROOVE.
  136. HOW IS PATELLAR LUXATION TREATED SURGICALLY?
    DEEPEN TROCHLEAR GROOVE ( TROCHLEOPLASDTY, WEDGE RECESSION ) TO TIBIAL TUBEROSCITY TRANSLOCATION AWAY FROM LUXATION.
  137. WHAT TYPE OF LAMENESS IS CAUSED BY RUPTURED CRANIAL CRUCIATE LIGAMENT?
    CARRYING LIMB LAMENESS.
  138. WHICH STIFLE'S COLLATERAL LIGAMENT IS MORE COMMONLY INJURED? WHY?
    MEDIAL; INJURIES USUALLY COME FROM LATERAL SIDE.
  139. WHERE DOES OSTEOCHONDROSIS OCCUR IN THE DOG'S STIFLE MOST FRQUENTLY?
    MEDIAL RIDGE OF THE TROCHLEA OF THE FEMUR.
  140. PARALYSIS OF WHAT THORACIC AND PELVIC LIMB NERVE RESULTS IN INABILITY TO BEAR WEIGHT? WHY?
    HIGH RADIAL NERVE; CANT EXTEND ELBOW. FEMORAL NERVE CANT EXTEND STIFLE.

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