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What is obesity?
a greater than 20% increase over healthy weight, based on BMI. Considered obese if BMI is above 95th percentile.
What is rough and tumble play?
friendly play fighting, emerging in preschool years and peaking in middle childhood. May have been important in evolutionary past for developing fighting skill
What is piagets stage for middle childhood?
concrete operational, thought becomes logical and flexible
children in middle childhood can now demonstrate conservation, and reversibility. Newly to this stage they can also do seriation and transitive inference. What are these?
- Seriation, the ability to order items in a quantitative dimension such as heigh or weight
- Transitive inference, mental seriation, inferring lengths mentally (ie. if stick a is longer than stick c and stick c is shorter than stick b is stick a longer than stick b? yes)
Children in middlechildhood have an accurate understanding of cognitive maps. What is that?
the mental representations of familiar large scale spaces such as neighbourhoods or schools
Information Processing in Middle Childhood. As attention improves, so does memory. What are the memory strategies used?
rehearsal, organization (arranging concepts based on similarities into chunks) and by the end of middle childhood, elaboration (creating a shared meaning between two things that do not belong in the same category, also combined into chunks to promote better memory).
What is cognitive self regulation?
the process of continuously monitoring progress towards a goal, checking outcomes and redirecting unsuccessful efforts.
Info processing in learning. What is the whole language approach?
reading should be taught in a way that parallels natural language learning e.g. being exposed to text in poems, letters, posters so they can appreciate the communicative form of written lang
Info processing in learning. What is the phonics approach
This approach believes children should first be coached on the phonics of lang-the rules for translating written symbols to sounds
Which info processing learning approach do children learn best with? whole lang or phonics?
what is sternbergs triarchic theory of sucessful intelligence?
the everyday application of analytical, creative and practical intelligence
what is gardners theory of multiple intelligences?
the proposal of 8 independent intelligences. Permits ppl to engage in a wide range of cultural activities
What is the stereotype threat?
A problem in testing in which the fear of being judged on the basis of a negative stereotype can trigger anxiety that interferes with performance
what is dynamic assessment?
a culturally relevant testing procedure consistent with vytgotskis zone of proximal development that finds out what the child can attain with social support.
Learning in School. What is a traditional classroom?
teacher is sole authority, students very passive. Graded based on uniform standards.
Learning in school. What is a constructivist classroom?
encourages students to construct their own knowledge. Evaluated based on progress in relation to prior development
Learning in school. What is a social constructivist classroom?
a classroom where children participate jointly in activities to construct understandings
What is cooperative learning?
small groups of classmates working towards a common goal. Evidence that peer collaboration promotes development.
Teacher student interactions. What is the educational self fulfilling prophecy?
the idea that children may adopt teachers positive or negative views and live up to them.
Teachers expectations have a larger impact on high achievers or low achievers?
Children with special needs. What are inclusive classrooms?
classrooms that include all students, even those with learning difficulties to prepare them for participation in society.
What is a learning disability?
difficulties with learning, usually reading. Achievement considered behind what would be expected of their IQ.
What does being gifted mean?
displaying exceptional intellectual strength
What is creativity?
ability to produce original work
What is divergent thinking? ( in response to a problem)
the generation of possibilities when faced with a problem
What is convergent thinking?
arriving at a single correct answer, emphasized on intelligence tests.
What is talent?
outstanding performance in a specific field
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