Cell Bio Final

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valenzuej
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142052
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Cell Bio Final
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2012-03-17 01:00:18
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Cell Biology
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Cell Bio Final
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  1. Tissue
    An organized assembly of specialized cells and extracellular matrix that forms a distinct part of an animal or plant.
  2. Extracellular matrix (ECM)
    A network of polysaccharides and proteins secreted by cells. The ECM surrounds cells, protects cells, and guides their movements. The ECM is a structural component of tissues.
  3. Epidermis
    Epidermal cells are tightly packed with many adhesions between cells and between cells. There is little ECM in the epidermal layer.
  4. Basement membrane (also known as the basal lamina)
    Composed of ECM. The basement membrane serves to support the epidermis and provide a layer that is impermeable to macromolecules.
  5. Dermis
    tissue layer composed mostly of ECM with scattered cells throughout.
  6. Keratinocytes
    cells that comprise the vast majority of skin epidermis; they are packed with the intermediate filament protein known as keratin.
  7. Apical surface
    the “top” surface of an epithelial sheet, it is exposed to air or a bodily fluid.
  8. Basal surface
    rests on a basal lamina.
  9. Epithelial stem cells
    Dividing cells resting on the basal lamina
  10. melanocytes
    skin cells that secrete pigment
  11. macrophages
    tissue cells that combat infection and dispose of dying cells and debris
  12. Langerhans cells
    cells that endocytosis antigen during host defense against microbes
  13. intraepidermal and intradermal lymphocytes
    lymphocytes that combat infection
  14. endothelial cells
    cells that line blood vessels, transfer nutrients and wastes from tissues to blood
  15. fibroblasts
    cells that secrete extracellular matrix materials and form connective tissue.
  16. nerve cells
    cells used for sensory and cognitive functions
  17. Collagen
    A fibrous protein made of extended coiled coils. There are about 30 different types of collagen, which vary in the way that the triple helices are assembled.
  18. Glycosaminoglycans
    long chains of carbohydrate that typically form watery gels.
  19. Hyaluronic acid
    is a glycosaminoglycan that is abundant in animal ECM. It is formed in places in animals where cells are rapidly dividing. It is also abundant in joints as it has lubricating properties.
  20. Proteoglycans
    ECM proteins with numerous carbohydrate chains.
  21. Proteoglycan aggregates
    These are huge molecular complexes of glycosaminoglycan and protein, with molecular weights of several million. Abundant in cartilage, proteoglycans provide strength, resiliency, and pliability.
  22. Fibronectin
    A protein dimer that binds both to collagen and to the surface of cells. It is a connector protein.
  23. Laminins
    ECM proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and to other ECM molecules. “Paths” of laminin are secreted by cells and used as guides for cellular migration, especially during fetal development.
  24. Matrix metalloproteinases
    Proteases that break down ECM proteins. Required for tissue maintenance and renewal.
  25. Integrins
    plasma membrane proteins that couple the cytoskeleton of animal cells to the ECM. Fibronectin receptor, an integrin that binds to fibronectin in the ECM and cytoskeletal proteins intracellularly
  26. Cadherins
    A family of integral membrane proteins that allow cells of the same type to bind to one another when calcium is bound. Cadherins usually exhibit homotypic binding, meaning that each kind of cadherin binds to its own type.
  27. Tight junction
    A protein-based junction that seals neighboring cells together to prevent leakage of molecules between them
  28. Adherens junction
    A junction that joins cells via their actin microfilaments. Provides a strong mechanical connection and links the contractile actin network across cells allowing groups of cells to contract in an organized way.
  29. Desmosome junction
    A junction that joins cells via their intermediate cytoskeletal filaments. Provides a very strong mechanical connection. Used in skin and other tough tissues.
  30. Hemidesmosomes
    Site of cellular attachment to the basement membrane. The attachment links the cellular cytoskeleton to the ECM of the basement membrane.
  31. Gap junction
    Aqueous pores composed of the protein connexin between two animal cells. Gap junctions allow small intracellular contents (usually molecules less than 1000 dalton) to pass from one cell to another.
  32. The narrowest cytoskeletal filament, it is
    responsible for cellular contraction and expansion
    Actin
  33. These cytoplasmic structures are centers for microtubule organization during formation of the spindle body
    Centrioles/centrosomes
  34. The stacked internal membrane system of a
    chloroplast
    Thylakoid membranes
  35. The internal gel-like matrix of a chloroplast
    Stroma
  36. Large multi-protein assemblies that allow passage of
    molecules through the nuclear membrane.
    nuclear pore complex
  37. The intermediate cytoskeletal filament in skin
    cells
    Keratin
  38. An organelle that acidifies and curls
    Endosome
  39. The name of the reaction that links monomers into polymers such polysaccharides and proteins
    Dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction
  40. This class of biomolecule is composed of fatty
    acids and glycerol
    lipids
  41. The type of non-covalent bond that occurs
    between polar molecules
    hydrogen bond
  42. A type of non-covalent bond between non-charged, non-polar atoms
    Van der Waals force
  43. Long chains of carbohydrates that form watery
    gels
    Glycosaminoglycans
  44. Combined secondary structures that form a
    functional unit in proteins
    Motifs or domains
  45. The enzyme that synthesizes cAMP
    Adenylyl cyclase aka adenylate cyclase
  46. This molecule is made by oxidative phosphorylation
    ATP
  47. This states the first law of thermodynamics
    the concept that “energy is conserved”
  48. This states the second law of thermodynamics
    the concept that “entropy is increasing”
  49. He defined the energy of chemical bonds
    Dr. Gibbs
  50. An energy change symbolized by deltaGo
    standard free energy change
  51. These proteins lower activation energy
    enzymes
  52. During these reactions, an electron is gained
    reduction reaction
  53. This parameter must be less than zero for a reaction to procede
    free energy change
  54. The state in which the forward and reverse rates of a chemical reaction are thermodynamically equally favorable
    Equilibrium
  55. Proteins that connect cells to the extracellular matrix and transmit signals based on adhesion
    integrins
  56. The most abundant protein in animals
    collagen
  57. Specialized junctions that occur at the apical ends of epithelial cells and prevent diffusion of solutes between cells
    Tight junctions
  58. Most common cellular junction among keratinocytes
    desmosomes
  59. This junction allows the passage of small molecules between cells
    gap junction
  60. The extracellular matrix upon which epithelial sheets
    basal lamina (or basement membrane)
  61. Stiffens the lipid bilayer and obliterates the normally sharp transition between gel and liquid states
    cholesterol
  62. This enzyme causes phospholipids to switch leaflets
    flippase
  63. A term that describes the network of cytoskeletal and membrane attached proteins that are just beneath the plasma membrane
    cellular cortex
  64. The transport of a solute against its electrochemical gradient
    Active transport
  65. A transmembrane protein that is both a channel and an enzyme. It is responsible for returning nerve cell ionic balance to its resting state
    Sodium-Potassium ATPase
  66. A neurotransmitter that acts as a ligand to open chloride channels in nerve cell membranes
    GABA
  67. The phospholipid that is the source of IP3 and diacyl glycerol (DAG)
    Phosphotidyl inositol aka inositol phospholipid
  68. This signal molecule is made by endothelial cells and causes smooth muscle relaxation
    NO (Nitric Oxide)
  69. This is the number of times a G-protein-linked signal receptor crosses the membrane
    Seven
  70. This kinase is activated by cAMP
    Protein kinase A
  71. In heart muscle a G-protein coupled receptor binds to acetylcholine and triggers activation of a G protein that opens this
    A potassium channel
  72. A monomeric G protein responsible for activation of the MAP kinase cascade
    Ras
  73. This protein acts as an allosteric activator of several enzymes, but only when bound to calcium
    Calmodulin
  74. This class of signal receptors forms dimers that trans-autophosphorylate
    Receptor tyrosine kinase, aka enzyme-linked receptors
  75. This is the location where protein disulfide bonds are formed
    endoplasmic reticulum
  76. This protein complex binds the signal sequence of a newly made protein in the cytoplasm for purposes of directing the protein to the endoplasmic reticulum
    signal recognition particle
  77. If they lacked this sequence of amino acids, transmembrane
    proteins would be secreted
    stop transfer sequence, or transmembrane domain
  78. To arrive at a lysosome, a newly made protein must first travel through these two organelles
    ER and Golgi
  79. These are areas of plasma membrane where clathrin clusters around cell surface receptors for ligands that are to be endocytosed
    coated pits
  80. This protein coats transport vesicles that travel from Golgi to plasma membrane and back
    Clathrin
  81. The presence of this sugar group on newly made enzymes that are traveling through the Golgi sends the enzymes to lysosomes
    Mannose 6-phosphate
  82. The phase in mitosis during which spindle microtubules find and attach to kinetochores on chromosomes
    prometaphase
  83. The mitotic phase in which sister chromatids detach and microtubules pull them to opposite poles
    anaphase
  84. This is the shortest segment of the cell cycle
    M phase (mitosis and or cytokinesis are okay responses)
  85. During the spindle checkpoint, this protein binds to the centromere of chromosomes that have not yet aligned to the metaphase plate during mitosis
    mad2
  86. Most cells in an adult animal body are in this phase of the cell cycle
    Go (G sub 0)
  87. This essential activator of mitotic cyclin-cdk (aka MPF) is phosphorylated and moves to the cytoplasm when DNA damage is detected during G2
    cdc 25, activating phosphatase
  88. This tumor suppressor is a nuclear protein that acts to inhibit cyclin-cdk activity at the G1-S checkpoint
    p53 (or p21)
  89. This signaling intermediate activates the MAP kinase cascade. Mutated versions of this are commonly found in cancer cells
    Ras
  90. This process is often defective in cancer cells. It is a process by which a cell initiates its own death after detection of DNA damage
    apoptosis or programmed cell death
  91. A condition in which a cell has an abnormal number of chromosomes
    aneuploidy
  92. The class of signal receptor that is used to signal cell division and is most often found mutated in cancer
    Receptor tyrosine kinases
  93. This enzyme is often present at elevated levels in cancer cells and contributes to cellular immortality
    telomerase
  94. This term is used to describe a class of agents that cause chronic cellular activation and cell division
    tumor promoters
  95. A technique for finding protein-protein binding patterns
    microarray
  96. Laboratory method for measuring ion flow through a cellular membrane
    patch clamping
  97. It is used to count the number of cells in a specific volume under a light microscope
    Hemacytometer
  98. A technique that separates proteins based on their size
    SDS PAGE, or gel filtration
  99. Most common method used to identify proteins after 2-D gel electrophoresis
    Mass spec
  100. The name of the national internet-based data warehouse that is most used by cell biologists to retrieve DNA and protein sequence, structure and other cellular data
    NCBI
  101. The dilution required to achieve a cellular concentration of 20 cells per ml when the original concentration is 400 cells per ml
    1/20 or .05
  102. This is the number of DNA base pairs needed to code for a 20 amino acid protein
    60
  103. This is the number of copies of each gene that cells contain during G2 phase
    4
  104. This is the number of copies of each gene in a single egg or sperm cells
    1
  105. To form this during meiosis, homologous chromosomes align themselves to each other.
    a bivalent (Tetrad or Chiasmata okay)
  106. This is a difference between mitotic anaphase and meiotic anaphase I
    cohesion of sister chromatids. They remain attached during meiotic anaphase I
  107. This is a display of the full set of chromosomes from a cell in metaphase, stained, photographed and arranged with respect to size and number
    karyotype
  108. These are forms of the same gene that encode varying traits.
    Alleles
  109. Cell type responsible for secretion of the myelin sheath
    Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes
  110. The discovery of cells was made by this man in 1665
    Robert Hooke
  111. He defined the energy of chemical bonds
    Dr. Gibbs
  112. This bacterial toxin locks a stimulatory G protein in its GTP-bound state
    cholera toxin
  113. He discovered the organelle where proteins that are made in the ER are delivered and packaged
    Camillo Golgi
  114. During the spindle checkpoint, this protein binds to the centromere of chromosomes that have not yet aligned to the metaphase plate
    mad2
  115. His work led to the discovery and definition of an atomic mass unit
    John Dalton
  116. The phase that follows prophase
    Prometaphase
  117. The name for a class of enzymes that add phosphate to their
    substrates.
    Kinases
  118. The name for a class of enzymes that remove phosphate from
    their substrates.
    Phosphatases
  119. This molecular change must occur on Cdk (cell cycle
    dependent kinase) before the transition from G2 to M can occur.
    Activating phosphatase removes an inhibitory phosphate.
  120. This small molecule is released by G proteins when G proteins
    bind to signal receptors.
    GDP
  121. The cell cycle phase during which G1 cyclins are degraded.
    End or G1 and/or S phase
  122. The two times during the cell cycle when checkpoints for DNA
    damage operate.
    The G1-S transition and the G2-M transition.
  123. These three organelles disintegrate during mitosis.
    ER, nucleus, Golgi
  124. A series of reactions during which kinases phosphorylate
    other kinases.
    MAP kinase cascade.
  125. The two products that result from the action of
    phospholipase C on phosphatidyl inositol.
    IP3 and DAG.

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