Chapter 8 Vocab

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Chapter 8 Vocab
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2012-03-17 01:39:34
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Exam 3-8 VOC
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  1. motivation
    Factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms.
  2. Instincts
    Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than larned
  3. Drive reduction approaches
    Theories suggesting that a lack of a basic biological requiremet such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement( in this case, a thrist drive)
  4. Arousal approaches
    The belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity, increasing or reducing them as necessary.
  5. Incentive approaches
    Theories suggesting that motivation stems form the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentives.
  6. cognitive approaches
    theories suggestion that motivation is a product of people's thoughts and expectations
  7. Self-Actualization
    Self-actualization is a state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest ptentials, each in his or her own unique way
  8. Maslow's hierarchy of needs
  9. Obesity
    body weight that is more than 20% above the average weight for a person of a particular height
  10. weight set point
    The particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain
  11. Metabolism
    The rate at which food is converted to energy an expended by the body
  12. Anorexia nervosa
    A severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying that their behavior and appearance-which can become skeleton like-are unusual.
  13. Bulimia
    A disorder in which a person binges on large quantites of food, followd by efforts to purge the food through vomiting or other means
  14. Androgens
    male sex hormones secreted by the testes
  15. estrogens
    Class of female sex hormones
  16. Progesterone
    a female sex hormone secreted by the ovaries
  17. heterosexuality
    sexual attraction and behavior directed to the other sex
  18. double standard
    the view that premarital sex is permissible for males but not for females
  19. extramarital sex
    sexual activity between a married person and someone who is not his or her spouse
  20. homosexuals
    Persons who are sexually attracted to member of their own sex
  21. bisexuals
    persons who are sexually attracted to people of the same sex and the other sex
  22. transsexuals
    persons who believe they were born wit the body of the other gender
  23. need for achievement
    a stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains satisfaction by striving for and attaining a level of excellence
  24. need for affiliation
    an interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people
  25. Need for power
    a tendency to seek impact, control, or influence ober others, and to be seen as a powerful individual.
  26. emotions
    feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior
  27. James-Lange theory
    The idea that emotional experience is a reaction to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation(i feel sad because i am crying)
  28. cannon-bard theory
    The view that both physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus.
  29. Schachter-Singer theory
    The idea that emotions are determined jointly by a nonspecific kind of physiological arousal and its interpertation, based on enviornmental cues.
  30. Facial affect program
    Activation of a set of verve impulses that make the face display the appropriate expression
  31. Facial feedback hypothesis
    The hypothesis that facial expressions not only reflext emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and lablel emotions

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