bio digestive midterm two

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bio digestive midterm two
2012-03-17 01:53:51

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  1. digestive tract
    • mouth
    • pharynx
    • esophagus
    • stomach
    • small intstine
    • large intestin
    • anus
  2. mechanical digestion
    • break down of food by crushing grinding and churning of food
    • increases surface area by making smaller pieces
  3. chemical digestion
    breakdown of food by actions of enzymes and acids
  4. five layers of the digestive tract
    • inside-lumen
    • mucossa
    • submucossa
    • circular muscle
    • longitudinal muscle
    • outter- serosa
  5. the mucosa
    lines the lumen
  6. the submucosa
    • made of connective tissue
    • contains blood vessels and lymphnodes
  7. muscularis layer
    • surrounds the submucosa
    • inner circular muscle
    • outer longitudinal muscle
  8. serosa
    • thin layer of squamous epithelium
    • secretes fluids to prevent friction
  9. food breakdown begins in the
  10. the palate (roof of mouth)
    • hard plate- bone
    • soft plate- skeletal muscle
  11. uvula
    closes off the nasal cavity during swallowing
  12. tounge
    • skeletal muscle
    • pushes bolus (foodball) to back of throat
  13. tonsils
    lymphoid tissue that helps pretect against infection
  14. incisors
    • front 4
    • specialized for biting peices
  15. canine teeth
    • aka cuspids
    • rip food apart
  16. premolars
    • aka bicuspids
    • tear food apart
  17. molars
    grind food
  18. how many teeth do we have
    • children-20
    • adults 32
  19. parotids
    • largest salivary gland
    • located in upper cheek
  20. sublinguals
    salivary gland found beneath tounge
  21. submadibulars
    salivary gland that lies beneath oral cavity floor
  22. saliva
    contains salivary amylase lipase and moistens food and kiss mouth bactera
  23. salivary amylase
    breaks down starch
  24. salivary lipase
    breaks down lipids
  25. part of tooth
    • upper crown (above gum)
    • enamel
    • dentin
    • pulp cavity
  26. enamel
    • made of calcium and phosphate
    • covers tooth
  27. pulp cavity
    contains nerves and blood vessels
  28. bulus moves from mouth to
    • the pharynx.
    • the epiglotts keeps food from going into trachea
  29. from the esophagus to the
    stomach by means of peristalsis
  30. peristalsis
    rythmic waves that move objects in the body
  31. sphincters
    • bind like muscle
    • open and close to regulate passage of materials
  32. gastroesophageal sphincter
    • esophagus/ stomach junction
    • prevent acidic contens form entering the esophagus
  33. stomach
    • located on left side of abdomen beneath the diaphragm
    • stores and digest but does NOT absorb food
    • does absorb caffeine, asprin, and alcohol
    • bulus is now called a chyme
  34. stomach glands
    • secrete gastirc juice- begin chemical digestion
    • kills bacteria and breaks down connective tissue
  35. pepsin
    digests protiens
  36. mucus lines the stomach
    to protect it from being digested
  37. acidic chyme is neutralized
    by the pancreatic secretions that protect intestinal wall
  38. small intestine
    • main site of chemical digestional and where nutriets enter the blood stream
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • iliem
  39. villi
    • finger like projections that increase absorbtive surface
    • transport nutrients
  40. microvilli
    • cover villi to further increase surface area
    • enhances absorbtion of nutrients
  41. small intestine cells make
    lactase- found in milk
  42. lactose intolerance
    • comprimices lactase productio resulting in production of lactic acid which causes gas cramps and diarrhea.
    • cure with lactase supplements or limiting milk consumption
  43. what regulates secretion of digestive juices
  44. the hormone gastrin
    stimulates production of gastric juises
  45. what hormones are secreted by the duodenum
    secretin and CCK- stimulates digestive juice from pancreas and gallbladder
  46. liver
    • right side of abdomen below diaphragm
    • produces bile- break down fats with emulsification-prevents fats from clumping
    • goes to small intestine via hepatic duct
  47. large intestine
    • cecum- appendix
    • ascending colon
    • transverse colon
    • desendng colon
    • sigmoind colon
    • rectum anus
    • absorb water salts and some vitamins
  48. glycogen is broken down to what
    gluclose when gluclose leves anre low
  49. blood is filtered by liver to
    remove toxins dead cells pathogen drugs and alcohol
  50. gallbladder
    • attached to liver
    • stores and concentrates bile- released through common bule duct to duodenum
  51. pancreas
    • produces and secretes digestive enzymes
    • secrtes insulin and glucagon- regulate blood glucose leves
  52. the hormone trypsin
    digests protiens
  53. half of all diabetics suffer from
    • nerve damage
    • damage to kidneys and bloods vessels in retina