Invertebrates(1)

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Author:
HappyJedi7
ID:
142057
Filename:
Invertebrates(1)
Updated:
2012-03-17 01:49:16
Tags:
Bio 242
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Description:
Intro; brief descriptions of major phyla
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  1. Porifera
    • sponges
    • lack true tissues
    • have choanocytes (collar cells) - flagellated cells that ingest bacteria and tiny food particles
  2. Cnidaria
    • hydras, jellies, sea anemones, corals
    • unique stinging structures (nematocytes) housed in specialized cells (cnidocytes)
    • diploblastic
    • radially symmetrical
    • have gastrovascular cavity with single opening
  3. Platyhelminthes
    • flatworms
    • dorsoventrally flattened
    • unsegmented
    • acoelomates
    • triploblastic
    • gastrovascular cavity or no digestive tract
    • Lophotrochazoa clade
  4. Lophophorates: Ectoprocta, Brachiopoda
    • coelomates
    • have lophophores
    • Lophotrochozoa clade
  5. Mollusca
    • coelomates (but reduced coelom)
    • 3 main body parts: foot, visceral mass, mantle
    • most have hard shell made of calcium carbonate surrounding soft body
    • chitons, gastropods (snails, slugs), bivalves (clams, oysters, mussels, scallops), cephalopods (octopus, squid)
    • Lophotrochozoa clade
  6. Annelida
    • coelomates
    • segmented body wall and internal organs
    • digestive tract unsegmented
    • earthworms (oligochaetes)
    • Lophotrochozoa clade
  7. Nematoda
    • roundworms
    • cylindrical with tapered ends
    • unsegmented
    • pseudocoelomates
    • no circulatory system
    • undergo ecdysis
    • Ecdysozoa clade
  8. Artrhopoda
    • coelomates
    • segmented body
    • jointed appendages
    • exoskeleton made of protein and chitin
    • chelicerates (sea spiders, horseshoe crabs; arachnids - scorpions, spiders, ticks, mites), myriapods (millipedes, centipedes), hexapoda (insects), custaceans (lobsters, crayfish, barnacles, krill, shrimp, crabs, pill bugs)
    • Ecdysozoa clade
  9. Echinodermata
    • sea stars, sea urchins
    • coelomates
    • bilaterally symmetrical larvae
    • five-part body organization as adult
    • unique water vascular system
    • endoskeleton
    • Deuterostomia clade
  10. Chordata
    • ONLY lancelets, tunicates, hagfishes as invertebrates
    • coelomates
    • vertebrates have notochord
    • pharyngeal slits
    • post-anal tail
    • bilaterally symmetrical
    • segmented bodies
    • Deuterostomia clade
  11. Onychophora
    • velvet worms
    • live only in humid forests
    • fleshy antennae
    • several dozen pairs of saclike legs
  12. Placozoa
    • Trichoplax adhaerens
    • simple bilayer of a few thousand cells
    • thought to be basal
    • reproduce by dividing into two individuals or by budding off many multicellular individuals
    • includes only one species

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