bio endocrine midterm two

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bio endocrine midterm two
2012-03-26 00:55:26

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  1. signal transduction
    pathway (receptor protien) relays message from outside to action that occurs inside the cell
  2. endocrine system
    has endocrine glands that secrete hormones into the blood
  3. hormones
    chemical messengers that respond form tissues that contain protien receptors
  4. protien hormones (first messanger)
    • bind to surface- ATP makes cAMP which activates enzymes
    • glycogen to glucose
  5. steriod hormones
    • synthesized from chelosterol
    • nonpolar so diffuse across cell membrane bind to receptors- nucleous- make codes for protiens
  6. hormones work by either
    • biding to the cell surface receports and trigger change inside cell
    • or difuuse across cell membrane- bind to recepor and trigger responce
  7. 9 glands are
    • hypothalamus
    • pituitary
    • pineal thryoid
    • parathyroid
    • thymus
    • adrenal
    • pancreas
    • gonads
  8. adrenal gland
    • primary system responds to stress
    • located on to of kidney
  9. adrenal cortex
    • long term stress response
    • secretes alderestone and steriods
  10. cortisol
    increases blood pressure and blood glucose level and is an anti-inflammatory
  11. aderenal medulla
    • epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • short term stress response. secreted into capillaries for immediate affects
  12. what three systems function to maintain homeostasis
    • endocrine
    • nevous
    • immune
  13. hypothalamus
    • controlls blood pressure, heart/breathing rate, enhanced memorey and alertness
    • links nervous and endocrine systemys
    • directs activities to pituitary gland
    • produces ADH and oxytocin
  14. oxytocin
    acts on the uterus, mammary glands, and helps with bonding
  15. ADH
    reduces water excretion by kindeys and increases blood pressure
  16. growth hormone
    • release form pituitary
    • promotes cell division and growth in muscles and bones
    • stimulates protien synthesis and regulates metabolism
  17. hormone prolactin
    relased by pituitary to stimulate milk production in pregnant and nursing mothers
  18. FHS and LH hormone
    • have to do with reproductive parts
    • sperm and egg production and sex hormone production
  19. pancreatic islets
    • alpha- glucagon- raises blood suger
    • beta- insulin- lowers blood sugar
    • delta- somatostain- inhibits glucagon and insulin
  20. t3 and t4
    activates genes to speed up ATP production and increases metabolic rate
  21. parathyroid gland
    • located on back of thyroid gland
    • parathyroid hormone
  22. CRH
    promotes production of ACTH
  23. ACTH
    decreases release of CRH and ACTH
  24. GnRH
    • regulates release of FSH and LH
    • doesnt begin until puberty
  25. thyroid
    • front of trachea
    • calcitonin and t3 and t4
  26. calcitonin hormone
    • decreases blood calcium leves
    • bone formation
  27. hypothyroidism
    leads to weightgain, lethargic, depression
  28. parathyroid thormone
    • increases blood calcium leves
    • bone reabsorbtion
  29. melatonin hormone
    produced by pineal gland- assoiciaed with sleep
  30. hyperthyroidism
    • graves disease
    • hyperactivity, insomnia, eyeballs bulge
  31. pineal gland
    in brain secretes melatonin
  32. melatonin
    sleep and wake cycles.
  33. thymus gland
    • bottom of trachea
    • produces thyomosin
  34. thyomosin
    • development of immune system cells
    • important in children
  35. eythropoietin
    stimulates prodction of red blood cells
  36. vitamin d
    skin, calcium absorbtion
  37. gastrin
    stimulates stomac acid production
  38. secretin
    stimulates release of acid buffer
  39. stress triggers
    • impared fertility
    • heart disease
    • high blood pressure
    • depression
    • diabetes
    • common cold
    • ulcers