Respiratory System

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Respiratory System
2010-04-12 23:24:10

Anatomy 3611
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  1. Thoracic Contents
    Sternum, Manubrium, Xiphoid process, ribs (7 true, 5 false, 2 floating)
  2. Superior thoracic aperature
    manubrium, 1st ribs, t(1) vertebrae
  3. Inferior thoracic aperature
    covered by diaphram
  4. Contains the lungs surrounded by the pleura
    pleural cavity
  5. A single serious membrane that covers the lung
  6. Heart, surrounded by the pericardium, and other structures
  7. A single serious membrane that coversthe heart
  8. Getting O2 into lungs, and CO2 out of lungs
    Pulmonary ventilation
  9. Getting O2 to the blood, and removing CO2 away from the blood; occurs in pulmonary capillaries of the lungs
    External respiration
  10. Getting O2 to the cells, and removing CO2 away from cells; occurs in capillaries of systemic circulation
    Internal respiration
  11. Nose is made up of Greater and lesser _____________ cartilages. These are made of _______ cartilage.
    Alar, hyaline
  12. External Nares
  13. Vestibule
    "entrance" or "atrium"
  14. Vibrissae
    nose hairs
  15. Skin of the nose is ______________________ epithelium
    stratified squamous
  16. The nasal cavity entrance that continues to the internal nares or choanae
    nasal vestibule
  17. Nasal cavity is bounded above by ___________ and __________ bones.
    Bound below by _________ and _____ palate.
    • ethmoid, sphenoid,
    • hard, soft
  18. The nasal cavity contains the Superior and middle _________ bone, and ______________________ ("turbinates") that swirl air to moisten and trap dust particles.
    ethmoid, inferior nasal conchae
  19. Respiratory epithelium = _________________________ epithelium with _______ cells (mucus)
    pseudostratified ciliated columnar, goblet
  20. Respirator Mucosa: respiratory epithelium, lamina propria, and ___________________ glands in submucosa
    seromucous glands
  21. A type of mucus gland, also called tubuloalveolar glands
    seromucous glands
  22. Serous fluid = water + ________________ granules and mucus
  23. Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
    • Location: lines respiratory tract; parts ofthe reproductive tracts
    • Function: protection, secretion, movement of mucus and sex cells
  24. Olfactory epithelium = respiratory epithlium + _____________________
    Olfactory receptor cells
  25. Olfactory epithelium is located below _____________________.
    cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
  26. The four paranasal sinuses:
    frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary
  27. Sinuses have ______ opening(s) in nasal cavity; they are lined by _____________.
    one, nasal mucosa
  28. Pharynx:
    Located ____ and _____ to nasal cavity, beginning at the choanae
    Lined by ____________________ epithelium
    Composed of : _____________, _________________, and _______________
    • posterior and inferior
    • respiratory
    • nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
  29. Nasopharynx: from __________ to uvula of soft palate
    - lined with _______________ epithelium
    - contains: opening of ________ to middle ear, ________________, and _________________
    • choanae
    • respiratory
    • auditory tube, tubal tonsil, pharyngeal tonsil
  30. Oropharynx: from fauces to level of __________ bone
    - _____________ to oral cavity, acts as a passage for air and food
    - lined by _________________________________
    - contains: _______________, _______________, and ___________
    • hyoid
    • posterior
    • startified squamous epith. (same as oral cav.)
    • palatine tonsil, lingual tonsil, epiglottis
  31. Laryngopharynx: from left of hoid bone to level of _______ cartilage of trachea
    - posterior to ____________, acts as a passage for air and food
    - continuous with both _______ and ___________
    - lined by __________________ (same as oral cavity)
    - Contains: _____________
    • cricoid
    • larynx
    • esophagus and larynx
    • stratifies squamous epith.
    • opening into larynx
  32. Used as an air passage and for vocalization
  33. larynx has opening into trachea protected by the ___________.
  34. Superior part of vocal cords =
    startified squamous
  35. Inferior to vocal cords =
    resp. epithelium
  36. used for sound production "true vocal cord"
    Vocal fold
  37. Lies above vocal fold to provide protection "false vocal chord"
    vestibular fold
  38. stretches from thyroid to arytenoid cartilages
    Vocal ligament
  39. The vocal folds together form the
    Rima glottides
  40. Four laryngeal cartilages: (all are hyline cartilage)
    • 1) thyroid ("shield-shaped")
    • 2) arytenoid ("spoon-shaped")
    • 3) cricoid ("ring-shaped")
    • 4) corniculate ("horn-shaped")
  41. Motor innervation to muscles of vocalization and the larynx is the __________ nerve
  42. Wind-pipe; from cricoid cartilage to bifurcation into bronchi
  43. ____-shaped hyaline cartilage, keeps air-passage open
  44. Psoterior side of trachea is soft and in contact with __________________
  45. the trachea bifurcates into _________________
    right and left pulmonary bronchi
  46. Inside trachea at birfucation is a ridge
  47. Bifurcation in trachea occurs at the ________________ plane
    transverse thoracic
  48. The trachea is in the ____________ mediastinum and bronchi are in __________ mediastinum
    superior, posterior
  49. The angle into the left bronchus is ____ than that of the right. Aspirated material is more likely to go into _____ bronchus.
    steeper, right
  50. Primary bronchi split into _________ or lobar bronchi
  51. There are ___ lobes of the right lung, and ___ lobes of the left
  52. There are ___ lobar bronchi on the right, and ____ on the left
    3 (superior, middle, inferior), 2 (superior, inferior)
  53. ______________ are found in primary bronchi
    Cartilage rings
  54. ________________________ are found in secondar and tertiary bronchi.
    cartilagenous plates
  55. _________ cartilage is found in bronchiole.
  56. _________ muscle found from trachea through alveolar ducts
  57. Order of air-flow into lungs
    trachea - bronchus - bronchiole - terminal bronchiole - respiratory bronchiole - alveolar duct - alveolar sac - alveolus
  58. Each lung has an _______________, the right also has a _________________.
    oblique fissure, horizontal fissure
  59. the _________ lung has a cardiac impression and notch
  60. Oblique fissure + cardiac notch =
  61. Caridopulmonary circulation
    in lungs, 02 is exchanged for CO2 on RBCs
  62. Within the lung, the artery tracels with the ________ divided into lovar and segmental arteries
    primary bronchus
  63. The door into the lung
  64. Root of lung =
    all structures that travel together into or out-off lung
  65. Root of lung from superior to inferior:
    • Left lung: pulmonary arteries, bronchi, pulmonary veins
    • Right lung: bronchi, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins (BAV)
  66. Phrenic and Vagus nerves travel together in the _____, past the root of the lung
  67. Thre phrenic nerve passes ________ to the root and through the ______________
    ventrally, pericardium
  68. The vagus nerve passes _______ to the root and disappears behind the hear.
  69. The thoracic cavity contains _________ pleural cavities; each containing : lungs + pleural lingings + potential space
  70. The part of the pleura in contact with the lungs
    visceral pleura
  71. the part of the pleura in contact wit hthe thoracic wall
    parietal pleura
  72. The pariental becomes continuous with the visceral pleura the the ____________. The are aof serous membrane surrounding the root of the lung.
  73. the hilum continues inferiorly as a souble layer
    Pulmonary ligament
  74. The Parietal pleura consists of four parts:
    costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic and cervial (cupola) pleura
  75. The cervial (cupola) pleura is deep to the _________ artery and vein.
  76. The lung is _______ to expand on its own
  77. To expand, the visceral pleura adheres to the parietal pleura via _________
    serous fluid
  78. The ____________ is closed, like a balooon, with nothing inside excepta small amoungt of pleural (serious) fluid
    pleural sac
  79. Recesses: the lungs do not occupy the Pulmonary cavities completely
    • cosotdiaphragmatic recess
    • costomediastinal recess
  80. ______________ pleura is insensitive
  81. Sensory nerves of parietal pleura are the ______________, ____________, ____________________
    phrenic, intercosal and dermatomes (C3-c5)
  82. The order of air-flow into lungs
    • trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, terminal bronchiole (<-- conducting zone)
    • resp. bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, alveolus (<-- respiratory zone)
  83. hyaline cartilage rings, respiratory epithelium, smooth muscle
    primary bronchi
  84. hyaline cartilage plates, smooth muscle
    secondary bronchi
  85. Simple columnar ciliated epithelium, NO cartilage, smooth muscle
  86. Simple cuboidal ciliated epithelium, NO cartilage, smooth muscle
    terminal bronchioles (smallest)
  87. Conducting zone of lungs
    air passages
  88. respiratory zone of lungs
    O2 and CO2 exchange
  89. Alveolar DUCTS
    Alveolar SACS (terminal clusters of alveoli)
    - Atrium = opening into sac
    Respiratory bronchiole
  90. Most of lung volume, gas-filled air-exchange chamber
  91. Simple squamous cells that make up walls of alveolus
    Type-I Alveoli Cells
  92. Surfactant secreting simple cuboidal cells in alveoli
    Type-II Alveoli cells
  93. Alveolar machrophages
    dust cells
  94. "air-blood barrier" = alveoli + pulmonary capillaries
    respiratory membrane
  95. Alveolar _________ = communication between alveoli
  96. Sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle
  97. Parasymp innervation
  98. The ______________ is a muscle of respiration
    - the floor of the thoracic cavity
    - it covers the inferior thoracic aperature
  99. Muscle fibers run in the direction from lateral, inferior-medial
    external intercostal muscles
  100. muscle fibers from from later superior-medial; fibers run perp. to external intercostals muscles
    internal intercostal muscles
  101. During forces respiration:
    • -first and second ribs are elevated
    • -intercostal muscles contract
    • -diaphragm flattens downward
    • -thoracic volume increased
  102. During expiration
    • -ribs are fixed or lowered by abs
    • -intercostals contract
    • -thoracic volume decreased
  103. ___________ of inspiration = stretch receptors in lungs
  104. The diaphragm is innervated by the ____________ nerve. Ventral rami of ______________.
    phrenic. C3,4,5 keeps your diaphram alive!
  105. Intercostal muscles are innervated by _______________ nerves.
    Intercostal nerves; thoracic has 12 pairs, ventral rami from spinal cord (T1-11)
  106. The Respiratory Center in the _______________ sets a baseline ventilatory rate.
    medulla oblongata
  107. ___________________ respond to decrease in O2 or increase in CO2, or ph in blood
  108. Sensory information to medulla oblongata via _____ and _________ nerves
    vagus and glossopharyngeal (X and IX)
  109. Each intercostal space contains:

    1) Anterior intercostal artery and vein- from ________________
    2) Posterior intercostal artery and vein - from ______________________
    • internal thoracic artery/vein
    • thracic aorta/ inferior vena cava
  110. The trachea, bronchi and lung:

    are supplied by ________________ arteries from the thoracic aorta
    are drained by ________________ veins that empty into the __________ system of veins; and small branches drain into pulmonary veins.
    • bronchial
    • bronchial
    • azygous