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Sternum, Manubrium, Xiphoid process, ribs (7 true, 5 false, 2 floating)
Superior thoracic aperature
manubrium, 1st ribs, t(1) vertebrae
Inferior thoracic aperature
covered by diaphram
Contains the lungs surrounded by the pleura
A single serious membrane that covers the lung
Heart, surrounded by the pericardium, and other structures
A single serious membrane that coversthe heart
Getting O2 into lungs, and CO2 out of lungs
Getting O2 to the blood, and removing CO2 away from the blood; occurs in pulmonary capillaries of the lungs
Getting O2 to the cells, and removing CO2 away from cells; occurs in capillaries of systemic circulation
Nose is made up of Greater and lesser _____________ cartilages. These are made of _______ cartilage.
"entrance" or "atrium"
Skin of the nose is ______________________ epithelium
The nasal cavity entrance that continues to the internal nares or choanae
Nasal cavity is bounded above by ___________ and __________ bones.
Bound below by _________ and _____ palate.
- ethmoid, sphenoid,
- hard, soft
The nasal cavity contains the Superior and middle _________ bone, and ______________________ ("turbinates") that swirl air to moisten and trap dust particles.
ethmoid, inferior nasal conchae
Respiratory epithelium = _________________________ epithelium with _______ cells (mucus)
pseudostratified ciliated columnar, goblet
Respirator Mucosa: respiratory epithelium, lamina propria, and ___________________ glands in submucosa
A type of mucus gland, also called tubuloalveolar glands
Serous fluid = water + ________________ granules and mucus
Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium
- Location: lines respiratory tract; parts ofthe reproductive tracts
- Function: protection, secretion, movement of mucus and sex cells
Olfactory epithelium = respiratory epithlium + _____________________
Olfactory receptor cells
Olfactory epithelium is located below _____________________.
cribiform plate of ethmoid bone
The four paranasal sinuses:
frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, maxillary
Sinuses have ______ opening(s) in nasal cavity; they are lined by _____________.
one, nasal mucosa
Located ____ and _____ to nasal cavity, beginning at the choanae
Lined by ____________________ epithelium
Composed of : _____________, _________________, and _______________
- posterior and inferior
- nasopharynx, oropharynx, laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx: from __________ to uvula of soft palate
- lined with _______________ epithelium
- contains: opening of ________ to middle ear, ________________, and _________________
- auditory tube, tubal tonsil, pharyngeal tonsil
Oropharynx: from fauces to level of __________ bone
- _____________ to oral cavity, acts as a passage for air and food
- lined by _________________________________
- contains: _______________, _______________, and ___________
- startified squamous epith. (same as oral cav.)
- palatine tonsil, lingual tonsil, epiglottis
Laryngopharynx: from left of hoid bone to level of _______ cartilage of trachea
- posterior to ____________, acts as a passage for air and food
- continuous with both _______ and ___________
- lined by __________________ (same as oral cavity)
- Contains: _____________
- esophagus and larynx
- stratifies squamous epith.
- opening into larynx
Used as an air passage and for vocalization
larynx has opening into trachea protected by the ___________.
Superior part of vocal cords =
Inferior to vocal cords =
used for sound production "true vocal cord"
Lies above vocal fold to provide protection "false vocal chord"
stretches from thyroid to arytenoid cartilages
The vocal folds together form the
Four laryngeal cartilages: (all are hyline cartilage)
- 1) thyroid ("shield-shaped")
- 2) arytenoid ("spoon-shaped")
- 3) cricoid ("ring-shaped")
- 4) corniculate ("horn-shaped")
Motor innervation to muscles of vocalization and the larynx is the __________ nerve
Wind-pipe; from cricoid cartilage to bifurcation into bronchi
____-shaped hyaline cartilage, keeps air-passage open
Psoterior side of trachea is soft and in contact with __________________
the trachea bifurcates into _________________
right and left pulmonary bronchi
Inside trachea at birfucation is a ridge
Bifurcation in trachea occurs at the ________________ plane
The trachea is in the ____________ mediastinum and bronchi are in __________ mediastinum
The angle into the left bronchus is ____ than that of the right. Aspirated material is more likely to go into _____ bronchus.
Primary bronchi split into _________ or lobar bronchi
There are ___ lobes of the right lung, and ___ lobes of the left
There are ___ lobar bronchi on the right, and ____ on the left
3 (superior, middle, inferior), 2 (superior, inferior)
______________ are found in primary bronchi
________________________ are found in secondar and tertiary bronchi.
_________ cartilage is found in bronchiole.
_________ muscle found from trachea through alveolar ducts
Order of air-flow into lungs
trachea - bronchus - bronchiole - terminal bronchiole - respiratory bronchiole - alveolar duct - alveolar sac - alveolus
Each lung has an _______________, the right also has a _________________.
oblique fissure, horizontal fissure
the _________ lung has a cardiac impression and notch
Oblique fissure + cardiac notch =
in lungs, 02 is exchanged for CO2 on RBCs
Within the lung, the artery tracels with the ________ divided into lovar and segmental arteries
The door into the lung
Root of lung =
all structures that travel together into or out-off lung
Root of lung from superior to inferior:
- Left lung: pulmonary arteries, bronchi, pulmonary veins
- Right lung: bronchi, pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins (BAV)
Phrenic and Vagus nerves travel together in the _____, past the root of the lung
Thre phrenic nerve passes ________ to the root and through the ______________
The vagus nerve passes _______ to the root and disappears behind the hear.
The thoracic cavity contains _________ pleural cavities; each containing : lungs + pleural lingings + potential space
The part of the pleura in contact with the lungs
the part of the pleura in contact wit hthe thoracic wall
The pariental becomes continuous with the visceral pleura the the ____________. The are aof serous membrane surrounding the root of the lung.
the hilum continues inferiorly as a souble layer
The Parietal pleura consists of four parts:
costal, mediastinal, diaphragmatic and cervial (cupola) pleura
The cervial (cupola) pleura is deep to the _________ artery and vein.
The lung is _______ to expand on its own
To expand, the visceral pleura adheres to the parietal pleura via _________
The ____________ is closed, like a balooon, with nothing inside excepta small amoungt of pleural (serious) fluid
Recesses: the lungs do not occupy the Pulmonary cavities completely
- cosotdiaphragmatic recess
- costomediastinal recess
______________ pleura is insensitive
Sensory nerves of parietal pleura are the ______________, ____________, ____________________
phrenic, intercosal and dermatomes (C3-c5)
The order of air-flow into lungs
- trachea, bronchus, bronchiole, terminal bronchiole (<-- conducting zone)
- resp. bronchiole, alveolar duct, alveolar sac, alveolus (<-- respiratory zone)
hyaline cartilage rings, respiratory epithelium, smooth muscle
hyaline cartilage plates, smooth muscle
Simple columnar ciliated epithelium, NO cartilage, smooth muscle
Simple cuboidal ciliated epithelium, NO cartilage, smooth muscle
terminal bronchioles (smallest)
Conducting zone of lungs
respiratory zone of lungs
O2 and CO2 exchange
Alveolar SACS (terminal clusters of alveoli)
- Atrium = opening into sac
Most of lung volume, gas-filled air-exchange chamber
Simple squamous cells that make up walls of alveolus
Type-I Alveoli Cells
Surfactant secreting simple cuboidal cells in alveoli
Type-II Alveoli cells
"air-blood barrier" = alveoli + pulmonary capillaries
Alveolar _________ = communication between alveoli
Sympathetic innervation of smooth muscle
The ______________ is a muscle of respiration
- the floor of the thoracic cavity
- it covers the inferior thoracic aperature
Muscle fibers run in the direction from lateral, inferior-medial
external intercostal muscles
muscle fibers from from later superior-medial; fibers run perp. to external intercostals muscles
internal intercostal muscles
During forces respiration:
- -first and second ribs are elevated
- -intercostal muscles contract
- -diaphragm flattens downward
- -thoracic volume increased
- -ribs are fixed or lowered by abs
- -intercostals contract
- -thoracic volume decreased
___________ of inspiration = stretch receptors in lungs
The diaphragm is innervated by the ____________ nerve. Ventral rami of ______________.
phrenic. C3,4,5 keeps your diaphram alive!
Intercostal muscles are innervated by _______________ nerves.
Intercostal nerves; thoracic has 12 pairs, ventral rami from spinal cord (T1-11)
The Respiratory Center in the _______________ sets a baseline ventilatory rate.
___________________ respond to decrease in O2 or increase in CO2, or ph in blood
Sensory information to medulla oblongata via _____ and _________ nerves
vagus and glossopharyngeal (X and IX)
Each intercostal space contains:
1) Anterior intercostal artery and vein- from ________________
2) Posterior intercostal artery and vein - from ______________________
- internal thoracic artery/vein
- thracic aorta/ inferior vena cava
The trachea, bronchi and lung:
are supplied by ________________ arteries from the thoracic aorta
are drained by ________________ veins that empty into the __________ system of veins; and small branches drain into pulmonary veins.