Food Quality and Safety

The flashcards below were created by user Cartejer on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. Adulterants
    Food/drug producers deliberately added inferior or cheaper materials to food to increase quantity or imporove food appearance.

    Melamine in milk, flour, corn meal.
  2. Mislableing
    Many foods and drugs were intentionally mislabeled. Cough medicines, wine, contained high amounts of narcotics and unspecified ingreadiants
  3. Pure Food and Drug Act, 1906
    • Required:
    • Proper Labeling of OTC drugs
    • Proper Labeling
    • Inspectations for meatpakcing and food production facilities
    • Wanted to curb growing number of opiate addicts
    • Established the FDA
  4. Elixir Sulfanilamide Disaster, 1937
    • Sulfanilamide discovere in 1935 and on the market by Sept 1937
    • By Oct. several already dead. Over 100 died in all
    • Prompted the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938
  5. Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 1938
    • Required certification of food color additives
    • generated a list of Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS)
    • Addressed issues of cosmetics
    • Testing of drugs prior to marketing
  6. Delaney Amentment
    • To the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
    • Manufacture of any proposed food additive or new food chemical had to satisfy the FDA that product was safe before approved for use
    • Prohibited the use in food of any ingredient shown to cause cancer in animals or humans
  7. Black Monday
    • November 9, 1959
    • Cranberries grown in Oregon and Washington are found to be contaminated with 100 ppm of an herbicide
    • Industry blames the Delaney Clause
  8. Food Quality Protection Act-1996
    • Gutted the Delaney Cuase
    • Excluded pesticide residues in processed foods from regulation as food additives. Replaced with "neglible risk" standards
    • Standards aimed at elimnating detectable toxins from foods shredded
  9. Food Contaminants
    • Ingredients that serve no useful purpose: pesticide residues, rat hairs , and feces, steroid hormones
    • Presumed to be harmless unless proven otherwise
    • FDA has established the Defect Action Levels which specify the maximum limit of contamination
  10. Food Additives
    • Substances intentionally added to food to modify its taste, color, texture, nutritive value, appeareance, and resistance to deerioration
    • Some additives are beneficial to health
    • Vitamin D to milk to prevent Rickets
    • Iodine to table salt to prevent goiter
    • Niacin to bread to prevent pellegra
  11. Regulatory Authority
    • Until 2011 FDA was not authorized to:
    • Require recalls of cosmetics
    • require recalls of drugs. They can issue warnings and recommend recalls
    • Require recall of tainted or dangerous food. They can investigate and determine source of contamination or other problem, but lack authority to force company to recall food
  12. FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act
    • Jan 4, 2011
    • Food facilities must keep wirtten lgos of problems
    • FDA gains ability to hold companies accountable for preventing contamination
    • Gives FDA the authority to issue mandatory recalls
  13. Global Supermarket
    • Less than 1% of the six million food shipments arriving in the US are inspected
    • USDA covers meat, milk and poultry
    • FDA covers everything else
  14. Foodborne Illness
    Any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food
  15. Foodborne Outbreak
    The occurrence of two or more cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a common food
  16. Estimates of Foodborne Illness
    • FDA: 80 million cases per year
    • CDC: 76 million
  17. Forces Contributing to Foodborne Disease Problems
    • Incrasing global food supply
    • Emerging pathogens. Overuse of Antibiotics
    • Improper food preparation
  18. Foodborne Illness Cost Estimates
    • Ave Cost per Outbreak- $500,000
    • Total estimated cost of foodborne ilness annually: 152 billion
  19. Factors of Foodborne Disease outbreaks
    • 63%- Inadequate cooling and cold holding temps
    • 29%- Prepearing food ahead of planned service
  20. Foodborne Infections
    Resutl fo consumption of live bacteria or virus; organism continue to multiply
  21. Foodborne Intoxication (Poisoning)
    Cosumption of food containg toxin created by bacterial growth in food
  22. Toxin-mediated infection
    organism within the body produces a toxin
  23. Bacterial Foodborne Infections
    • salmonellosis
    • fecal streptococcal GI illness
    • Yersiniosis
  24. Infections
    • Symptoms: GI distress with possible fever and chills
    • Usual onset within 1-24 hours of eating
    • Typically associated with poultry, meat, or eggs
    • Largest outbreak was in 1985 from milk
  25. Campylobacter jejuni
    • Most common form of bacterial food poisoing in the US
    • Undercooked turkey or chicken as it is always present on poultry carcasses
    • Under the right conditions one bacterium could become several millions in 8 hours and thousands of millions in 12 hours
  26. E. Coli 0157:H7
    • one of the most dangerous
    • 25,000 US cases with 50-100 deaths annually
    • The infective dose is really low- as little as 50 organisms
    • In 2-7% of victims it can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome; destruction of RBC's leading to kiney failure and possible death
    • Used to be associated with undercoked meats, but recently in vegetables, juices, and on fruit
  27. Poisnous Animals
    • Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
    • •can be lethal
    • •Dinoflagellates creat 'red tide'
    • Poison Tropical fish
    • •Ciguatera poisoning
    • Scombroid poisoning
  28. Food and Drug Administration (FDA):
    • regulates processing, manufacturing, interstate sales of foods. Monitor food quality during processing, retailing, and food service.
    • Ensures sanitary, safe food
    • Works closely with CDC
    • Issues Food recalls
  29. CDC
    • Outbreak investigation
    • National surveillance system
    • Food Net, EHS-net, Healthy People programs
    • In Oregon, they collaborate with the Department of Human Services, Food Proteciton Prgorams
  30. US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
    • Regulatory and inspection responsibility for domestic and international meat, poultry, and egg products. Issue publich health alerts
    • Grades food
    • Inspects retail establishments that have food service operations
  31. EPA
    Registration of pesticides and establishment of pesticed tolerances in foods
  32. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point Concept (HACCP)
    • Process developed in the 1960's by pillsbury company- foods for the space programs
    • Process identified potential problems with food safety in advance in advance and set up methods to control each possible hazard. Kept records tomake sure controls worked.
    • Focus is on foods and operations most likely to transmit disease
  33. HAACCP Steps
    • 1. Identify potentially hazardous foods
    • 2. Observce foods througout entire process in order to identify critical points
    • 3. Establish contorl procedures and monitor critical limits to guarantee safe food handling
    • 4. Establish a monitoring system
    • 5. Establish the corrective action
    • 6. Record-Keeping
    • 7. Verification procdures
Card Set:
Food Quality and Safety
2012-03-17 22:57:23
Environmental Health

Study Bitch
Show Answers: