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- A) obstructive airway defect
- B) restrictive interstitial lung disease
- C) normal lung
Which is true concerning the pathophysiology of hyperventilation?
- A) Blood pH decreases
- B) Ca++ increases
- C) Cerebrovascular vasoconstriction
- D) Decrease in coronary artery resistance
Where is the obstructive defect in emphysema?
- A) Bronchi
- B) Bronchioles
- C) Alveolar tissue
- D) Chest wall
Which of the following is an essential emergency drug?
- A) CO
- B) He
- C) O2
- D) NO
- E) N2O
Hypoventilation may lead to:
- A) Hypocapnia
- B) Hypercapnia
- C) Hypoxemia
- D) B and C
Which of the following would be a sign of partial airway obstruction with poor airflow?
- A) ability to talk
- B) forceful cough
- C) paradoxical breathing
- D) wheezing
Which of the following may precipitate an asthma attack?
- A) Exercise
- B) Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (e.g. ibuprofen)
- C) A stressful dental procedure
- D) All of the above
- E) None of the above
Pulmonary effusion may occur as a result of all of the following EXCEPT:
- A) Pneumonia
- B) Mesothelioma
- C) Cystic fibrosis
- D) Pulmonary embolism
Which of the following is NOT a likely cause for asthma development:
- A) Aeroallergens
- B) Common cold
- C) Deconditioning
- D) Aspirin
Pulmonary fibrosis may be seen in:
- A) Systemic scleroderma
- B) Rheumatoid arthritis
- C) Kyphoscoliosis
- D) Sleep apnea syndrome
Which of the following is FALSE about emphysema?
- A) The disease involves distention of small air spaces
- B) Patients w/ emphysema have reduced exercise tolerance
- C) Hypoxemia and hypercapnia occur early in the disease
- D) It may lead to pneumothorax
You notice that your patient with a history of asthma has developed wheezing and dyspnea. What should your first response be?
- A) Administer subcutaneous epinephrine
- B) Call her physician and ask how to proceed
- C) Have her take 2 puffs of inhaled albuterol
- D) Place her in the supine position
Which of the following drugs have little benefit in treatment of an acute bronchospasm?
- A) Cromolyn (non-steroidal inhibitor of inflammatory mediator release)
- B) Omalizumab (monoclonal antibody against IgE)
- C) Albuterol (beta-2 adrenoceptor agonist)
- D) A and B
- E) B and C
Which alveolar cell produces surfactant and was is the role of surfactant?
- A) type 1 pneumocyte, antimicrobial agent
- B) type 2 pneumocyte, lubricant to reduce surface tension
- C) Mucus cell, mucoid material to catch particular matter in airways
- D) Kulchitzky cell, peptide that regulates vascular and airway tone
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) may ultimately lead to:
- A) Severe hypoxia
- B) Cardiac ischemia
- C) Heart failure
- D) All of the above