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2010-04-13 02:14:29

Anatomy 3611
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  1. Functions of Blood:
    • Transport
    • Regulates body temp
    • Protects against blood loss by mediating clotting
    • Blood is a CT
  2. 92% H2O; contains ions, nutrients, wastes and hormones
  3. Three main plasma proteins (most formed in liver)
    albumin, globulins, fibrinogen
  4. Gives blood viscosity; responsible for the colloid pressure which draws fluid from interstitial space back into the blood vessels. Most abundant plasma protein
  5. Transporters (hemoglobin) or antibodies (immunoglobulins); 37% ofplasma proteins
  6. Element of coagulation (clotting); durring clotting, clotting factors convert it into long, insoluble strands called ____.
    • Fibrinogen
    • Fibrin
  7. When blood is allowed to clot then centrifuged, the foremd elelments and clot separate from a fluid called __________
  8. Enzymes and hormones <1% of all plasma proteins
    regulatory proteins
  9. The main purpose of _______________ is to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
  10. Exchanges of gases occurs in the ____________ in the lungs and peripheral tissues.
  11. ___________ or Packet Cell VOlume (PCV) = RBC volume/ tot cell vol x 100%
  12. Characteristics of Erythrocytes:
    • - Biconcave disc (giving large SA to absorb O2)
    • - Anucleate (NO nucleus)
    • - Life-span 120 days
  13. (Erythropoiesis) Production of RBCs occurs in the _____________________ stimulated by a hormone, erythropoietin, which is produced in the __________
    • red bone marrow
    • kidneys
  14. Function of red bone marrow
    actively generates blood cells
  15. Function of yellow bone marrow
    can produce cells, and become red when needed
  16. In adults, Yellow marrow is found in: ____________
    Red Marrow is found in: ____________
    • long bones (tibia, fibula, radius, ulna)
    • in the proximal ends of proximal long bones; pelvis, vertebrae, sternum, ribs, skull, scaplula (sites mid-line along axial plane)
  17. _________________ are the most numerous of all blood cells. 25trill in healthy adults
  18. Makes up 97% of a RBC, an O2 carrying protein;
    4 heme unites, each build around iron molecule
    Oxidation of iron gives blood its red color
  19. Dead RBCS are recycled by __________________ in the _____.
    Heme is dregraded to _____________, transported to the liver and made into bile
    Iron goes into bloodstream and is used in the ________ marrow for Erythropoeisis
    • macrophages, spleen
    • bilirubin
    • red
  20. ____________ and glycolipids are surface antigens on cell membranes of all cells
  21. ____ different surface antigens can be identified:

    - Three most important:
    • 50
    • ABD
  22. If a blood transfusion is given with incompatible blood, ___________ can occur which causes the cells to __________.
    agglutination (clumping), hemolyze (rupture)
  23. Donor blood contains INsignificant antibodes and ________________ be considered a part of agglutination
    should not
  24. Type A: A antigens present on the RBC
    • 40% of pop
    • has type B antibodies present in plsma
    • can receive A or O rbcs
  25. Type-B: B antigens present on the RBC
    • 10% of population
    • has type A antibodies present in plasma
    • can receive B or O
  26. Type AB: both A and B antigens present on the RBC
    • 4% of pop
    • has neither A or B antibodies present in plasma
    • can receive ANY type
    • Universal recipiant
  27. Type O: Neither A nor B antigens on RBC
    • 46% of population
    • has both A and B antibodies present in plasma
    • can receive ONLY type O
    • Universal donor
  28. Rh positive
    • HAS the D antigen present on RBC
    • has no anti-D antibodies present in plasma
  29. Rh Negative
    • does NOT have D antigen
    • Produces anti-D antibodies in plasma when exposed to D antigen
  30. Hemolytic disease
    Rh + mother can carry Rh - fetus, but if other way around.. a second pregnancy would destroy fetus unless synthetic anti-D antibodies are given to the mother
  31. Leukocyte Characteristics:
    • complete cells with the usual organelles
    • function OUTSIDE of blood vessels in CT
    • Chemotaxis
    • Diapedesis
    • Produced in bone marrow and released continuously
    • Classified as granular or agranular
  32. Chemotaxis =
    move toward a site by following chemical attractants
  33. Diapedesis =
    move into the tissues through small openings between the endothelial cells of capillaries and post-capillary venules
  34. Granular Leukocytes:
    neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
  35. Neutrophils
    • Nucleus contains 2-6 connected lobs PMNs
    • most abundant of all WBCs
    • defence against bacterial infections
    • phagocytize
    • granules are digestive enzymes to digest bacteria
  36. Eosinophils
    • nucleus has two lobes
    • granules stain red
    • 2-4% of WBCs
    • firght parasite infections, mediate allergic reactions and phagocytosis of antigen/antibody complexes
    • granules contain digestive enzymes
  37. Basophils
    • nucleus has two loves in U or S shape
    • granules stain dark purple
    • 1% WBC
    • release histamine during allergic reaction
    • function is similar to mast cells
  38. Agranular Leukocytes:
    Monocytes, Lymphocytes
  39. Monocytes
    • nucleus is dark and kidney, horse-shoe or U shaped
    • 3-8% WBCs
    • precursor to the macrophage, found in circulatory system
  40. Lymphocytes
    • nucleus is dark, round, and fills the cell
    • 20-25% WBCs
    • Major component in immune system
    • immune attack cells
    • produces in bone marrow
  41. B-Lymphocytes
    • educated in Bone marrow
    • stimulate against an antigen --> become plsma cells --> make antibodies against the antigen (opsonization)
    • Antigen-Antibody complexes are then phagocytoced by macrophages
  42. T-Lymphocytes (T-Helper cells and T-Cytotoxic cells)
    • Educated in the Thymus
    • T-Helper lymphocytes help to stimulate both B-lymphocytes and T-cytotoxic lymphocytes
    • T-Cytotoxic lymphocytes are "cell-to-cell killers"
  43. Platelets (thrombocytes)
    • not actual cells, disc shaped fragments enclosed by plasma membrane
    • - derived from megakaryocytes
  44. Blot Clot formation
    • 1) fibrin forms a network with platelets to trap the RBCs into a clot
    • 2) acting and mycin fibers contract to tighten clot and close laceration
  45. A clot associated with an atherosclerotic plaque can form a _________ or break free and form an ________
    thrombus, embolism
  46. Mnemonic for remembering blood cells from most to least frequent in circulating blood
    Remember Please, Never Let Monkeys Eat Bananas
  47. Complete Blood Count (CBC)
    • hematocrit
    • hemoglobin content
    • RBC, WBC, and platelet count
    • blood smear for differential WBC
  48. Diagnosis:
    Low hematocrit or RBC count =
    High neutrophils =
    High eosinophils =
    • anemic
    • bacterial infection
    • parasite infection or allergies
  49. Hematopoiesis = blood cell formation
    • occurs in bone marrow
    • continuous throughout life
  50. Between 8-18yrs, most bone marrow is replaced with yellow except, red marrow remains in the:
    axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphysis of humerous and femur
  51. Cell Formation
    all blood cells originate from STEM CELLS
  52. Stem cells in the bone marrow divide into two types of stem cells
    • 1) myeloid stem cells- form all other blood cells
    • 2) lymphoid stem cells- form lymphocytes
  53. Erythrocytes come from _________ stem cells
  54. An immature red blood cell is called a
  55. An increase in -________________ means RBCs are being rapidly produced
  56. Granular leukocytes arise from ________ stem cells
  57. An increase in immature neutrophils is found in someone who is:
    • fighting a bacterial infection
    • *this can be determined by a diferential WBC count
  58. Monocytes come from _________ stem cells
  59. Platelets come from ________ stem cells, which differentiate into _____________, which produce platelets
    myeloid, megakaryotes
  60. Lymphocytes come from _____________ stem cells