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2012-03-17 23:17:03
Intraoral Radiology

Intraoral 1 Radiology
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  1. The mandibular canal (red arrows identify inferior border of canal) usually runs very close to the roots of the molars, especially the third molar. This can be a problem when extracting these teeth. Note the extreme dilaceration (curving) of the roots of the third molar (green arrow) in the film at left. The film at right shows “kissing” impactions located at the superior border of the canal.
  2. The external oblique ridge (red arrows) and the mylohyoid ridge (blue arrows) usually run parallel with each other, with the external oblique ridge always being higher on the film.
  3. Submandibular gland fossa. A depression on the lingual side of the mandible below the mylohyoid ridge. The submandibular gland is located in this region. Due to the thinness of bone, the trabecular pattern of the bone is very sparse and results in the area being very radiolucent. The fact that it occurs bilaterally helps to differentiate it from pathology.
  4. Mandibular (inferior alveolar) canal. Arises at the mandibular foramen on the lingual side of the ramus and passes downward and forward, moving from the lingual side of the mandible in the third molar region to the buccal side of the mandible in the premolar region. Contains the inferior alveolar nerve and vessels.
  5. Mylohyoid ridge (internal oblique). Located on the lingual surface of the mandible, extending from the third molar area to the premolar region. Serves as the attachment of the mylohyoid muscle.
  6. External oblique ridge. A continuation of the anterior border of the ramus, passing downward and forward on the buccal side of the mandible. It appears as a distinct radiopaque line which usually ends anteriorly in the area of the first molar. Serves as an attachment of the buccinator muscle. (The red arrows point to the mylohyoid ridge).
  7. a = external oblique ridge, b = mylohyoid ridge, c = mandibular canal, d = submandibular gland fossa
  8. a = external oblique ridge, b = mylohyoid ridge, c = mandibular canal, d = submandibular gland fossa
  9. The mental foramen (blue arrow) is adjacent to a periapical lesion associated with tooth # 21 (red arrow). There is slight external resorption on # 21. The green arrow points to the mental foramen. The yellow arrow identifies a periapical lesion on # 30. Note the overextension of the silver point in the distal root, the perforation of the mesial root and the amalgam protruding through the perforation from the pulp chamber.
  10. Mental foramen. Usually located midway between the upper and lower borders of the body of the mandible, in the area of the premolars. May mimic pathology if superimposed over the apex of one of the premolars.
  11. Submandibular gland fossa. The depression below the mylohyoid ridge where the submandibular gland is located. More obvious in the molar periapical film
  12. Mandibular canal. (Inferior alveolar canal). Runs downward from the mandibular foramen to the mental foramen, passing close to the roots of the molars. More easily seen in the molar periapical.
  13. Mylohyoid (internal oblique) ridge. This radiopaque ridge is the attachment for the mylohyoid muscle. The ridge runs downward and forward from the third molar region to the area of the premolars.
  14. a = mylohyoid ridge (internal oblique), b = mandibular canal, c = submandibular gland, fossa, d = mental foramen
  15. The red arrows identify the mandibular canal and the blue arrow points to the mental foramen.
  16. Lingual foramen/genial tubercles. (See description under mandibular incisor above).
  17. Mental ridge. The raised portions of the mental protuberance, sloping downward and backward from the midline.
  18. a = mental ridge, b1 = genial tubercles, b2= lingual foramen, c = mental foramen
  19. The radiolucent area above corresponds to the location of the mental fossa. However, this slide represents chronic periapical periodontitis; these teeth are non-vital, due to trauma. (right) The orange arrows above identify nutrient canals. They are most often seen in older persons with thin bone, and in those with high blood pressure or advanced periodontitis.
  20. Mental fossa. This represents a depression on the labial aspect of the mandible overlying the roots of the incisors. The resulting radiolucency may be mistaken for pathology.
  21. Mental ridge. These represent the raised portions of the mental protuberance on either side of the midline. More commonly seen when using the bisecting angle technique, when the x-ray beam is directed at an upward angle through the ridges.