HIS 111B (Final Study Guide)

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HIS 111B (Final Study Guide)
2012-03-22 00:53:52

Greek History
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  1. Elysian Plains
    It was considered as one realm of the afterlife and was mentioned in the Homeric poems. People who were in the Elysian Plains were considered as unknowingly favored by the Gods because it was a place where the people enjoyed the afterlife However, the place called Tartarus was the opposite of this and was considered as a punishment to people and the Gods.
  2. Schlieman
    German businessman who was fascinated by works of ancient philosophy since childhood due to reading works such as the Iliad and the Odyssey. He made a fortune in business due to petroleum and eventually founded the first signs of civilization near the Aegean world. He uncovered nine cities in Asia Minor and proved that the cities of Troy and Mycenae actually existed
  3. Laconia
    Laconia was known as the vast field plains that was surrounding the city of Sparta. The Spartans were originally from Laconia as a minority group but eventually expanded by conquering the nearby group of Messinia. Also, the term laconic came from this term, spirit of war. Laconia was considered a significant region in the Ancient world because it was the starting place of the development of Sparta
  4. Ephors
    They were established during the founding of Sparta in the 8th Century B.C. by Lycorgus. They consisted of 5 powerful overseers who were elected annually by the Greek Gerousia. All citizens were able to be eligible in the election and previous Ephors were not able to be reelected. They were important because their high ranking in society allowed them to provide balance in Sparta when the 2 kings didn't cooperate.
  5. Apella
    It was an assembly of people in Spartan society. Even though they weren't allowed to debate about things in society, they were responsible for viewing the proposals made by the elders. They would cast their votes by shouting instead of writing them down. The apella was important because they represented democracy in Sparta, while the kings represented monarchy and gerousia represented the oligarchy.
  6. Peloponnesian League
    It was created in the 6th Century B.C. by Sparta in order to prevent the neighboring state of Argos from becoming too powerful. It was considered as an alliance between Sparta and other neighboring city-states, which lasted for about 100 years. This was important because during the late 5th century, this league was able to defeat Athens in the Peloponnesian war.
  7. Perioikoi
    Communities of aliens who conducted any business that existed in the Spartan state. They had been free but non-citizen inhabitants of Sparta. They could conduct business and trade in Spartan region. Also they could join the lowest ranks of Spartan army. They couldn't participate and vote in any political decisions. They served as a watch and a buffer to any Helots who tried to run away since they lived on the outskirts of Laconia. Late 7th Century
  8. Helots
    They were considered as slaves in Sparta and were usually comprised of people who were conquered in war such as the Messinians. Spartans maintained oppression to the helots and used them for agricultural and domestic work. For example, Spartan women did little housework since it was mostly done by the helots. As helots were considered as property, a Spartan would not be fined for mistreating them. However, helots were able to own their own property and could also be set free by payment. helots were important because they provided most of the agricultural work in the society.
  9. Amazons
    They were a group of women who would kill their male children in order to preserve feminine offspring. It is said that during the 9th Century B.C., King Theseus of Athens eventually expelled the Amazons from the region. The Amazons were important because they received their status as myth during the pre-European time period.
  10. Techne
    The term was established around 6th Century B.C. during the age of Solon. As Solon made Athens a "city of craftsmen," a great emphasis was now used on this word, which meant "skill methodically applied." This terms is significant because the word technician in modern day is derived from this term
  11. Ionia
    Greek colony in Athenian in Asia Minor that was conquered by the Persian king Cyrus the Great (before 5th Century B.C.). However, the Ionian Greeks revolted in 499 B.C. and appealed to Athens and other Greek city-states for help, in which Ionia became free from Persian rule. When the Athenians conquered Persian province of Sardis in 498 B.C., the Persians attacked back and reconquered Ionia.
  12. Pisistratos
    He was Solon's cousin who was a physical and intelligent man. He eventually seized the acropolis and became the tyrant of Athens during the mid 6th Century B.C. He then became in control of Athenian affairs and rules as a constitutional monarch. Even though he rose to power illegally, he was not a cruel man and established a committee to reproduce the texts of Homer. He was obsessed witht he thater and actually established both: the cult of Dianysos and the theater itself. He made Athens the center of art and is remembered as the man who beautified Athens
  13. Cleisthenes
    He was an Athenian leader who led a rebellion against the Spartan rule in Athens around 508 B.C. He was able to expel the Spartan ruler, Cleomenes, and became the hero of Athens. Before he became the Athenian leader, he was a rival to Isagoras in which Isagoras was put to death in 507 B.C. which started democracy in Athens. He is known as the first democrat in history and his first act as leader was neutralizing special interests by cutting power in certain groups. He is credited for establishing trittyes (30 districts), demos, boules (council of 500), and introducing ostracism in society in order to balance power in Athens. He was important because in other countries, many kings and tyrants dominated their power, but Cleisthenes showed that people could manage their own affairs and perform better under a democracy
  14. Ostracism
    This was introduced in Athens by Cleisthenes, which was a voting on any member who seemed harmful towards the state. The voting was done once a year in the Ecclesia, in which each person wrote their vote on a piece of pottery. In theory, no one could be ostracized unless 6,000 votes were cast towards one person. This was a means of detecting dangerous, popular people and put an end to civil disorders in Athens. (5th Century B.C.)
  15. Demos
    They were a local government of a population in Athens. During the reign of Cleisthenes during the late 6th Century B.C. - 5th Century B.C., he recognized parishes as self-governing units in which each parish had its own demos. The term demos is important because as the term means "rule by the people," the demos in Athens was the first step into establishing democracy.
  16. Leonidas
    He was a military leader during 480 B.C. in the Spartan city of Thermopylae. His army was outnumbered 9 to 1 against Xerses' army and refused to surrender. During the Persian attack, an army of 300 led by Leonidas held out for a week until a traitor revealed their plan. His army was eventually slaughtered and a monument was constructed for the Spartans of Thermopylae.
  17. Erechtheid Tribe
    They were known as descendants and relatives of the Athenians. They dedicated a momument towards 177 soldiers who died fighting in wars around the world (459 B.C.). All of the soldiers' names were listed and this is significant because the memorial is considered as one of the earliest established war memorials.
  18. Aristides The Just
    He was a political opponent of Themistocles and a supporter of the democracrtic reformer Cleisthenes. He had been give the name Aristides the Just for he had been a fair a benevolent person who was not seen as one to commit or do anything unjust to anyone. Also, he was ostracized sometimes during in his stay in Athens because of the fear that had become a powerful politician. He had lived around 530 B.C. to 468 B.C.
  19. Dicasteries
    They were Athenian courts which consisted of 100 to 1000 members in order to make bribery difficult and guarantee a broad cross - section of judgment. Jurors were chosen by lot and the court acted as a jury. Every citizen argues his own case and that innocence or punishment was administered through a majority vote. One important feature of this was that it showed that speaking well was an important ability to have in Athens
  20. Catharsis
    This is derived from the Greek word that means cleansing or purification. There are two components to catharsis in which there is an emotional aspect and a cognitive aspect which thus results in positive change.
  21. Schole
    Meant "leisure time" and was an important part of Athenian life. Many Athenians wanted to have this in order to do things such as go to the marketplace and intellectualize with other people. Also, the terms was used as a meaning to pursue higher learning in society. This was important because as Athenians had free time in their hands, this led to a better understanding and development of philosophy and art in society.
  22. Theseus
    Theseus was a man who lived during the 9th Century B.C. in a region called Attica. He eventually united all the petty kingdoms and communities in Attica during the 9th Century B.C. He became the founding father of Athens. Also, when he was a very young kid, he was able to expel the Amazons during an invasion.
  23. Cyncics
    The Cynics were a school of philosophy that emerged during the Hellenistic Age (around the third and second century B.C.). They believed that people should just reject all external pleasures and free themselves from all items in order to live a simple life. They wanted to live their lives in virtue and in agreement with nature. One of the famous Cynics was Diogenes, who taught and learned to love humanity after discarding all pleasures in life. Cynicism was important because some of its aesthetic and rhetorical teachings was adopted in early Christianity.
  24. Epidamnos
    This was a small city-state on the coast of Albania, which became important during the buildup tot he Peloponnesian war. The city-state was a politically advanced society of its time divided by liberal and conservative forces. However, due to their conflicts, they turned Athens and Sparta for help in which two states fought over which concept of rule was correct. Due to Epidamnos' internal conflicts, this helped begin the war.
  25. Metics
    They were one of the three group populations in Athens during the 5th Century B.C., with the others being the citizens and slaves. They were known as resident aliens in Athens, such as the Phoenicians and others who made up a good part of the population. They dressed exactly the same as the commoners and slaves in society and also worked side by side with them such as in construction. They did not have political privileges but had equal opportunity as citizens. They could also practice in social and cultural activity. They were important in society because to have been born as an Athenian, metics had some advantages over slaves and lower class people.
  26. Siwah
    Siwah was an Egyptian city established around the tenth - ninth century B.C. The city was named Amon, who was known as the sole Egyptian God in ancient Egyptian religion. They city became important around 322-330 B.C. when Alexander the Great conquered Egypt with no resistance and traveled to the city. As he arrived in Siwah, the priests in the city recognized him as Amon's son, which made Alexander the legitimate Pharaoh of Egypt.
  27. Issus
    It was known as a Persian city and was the second city that Alexander the Great attempted to conquer from the Persians in 333 B.C. During the battle, the Persians managed to capture Alexander's camp and greatly outnumbered his army. However, Alexander was able to strategize and defeat the Persian King's (Darius) forces during the Battle of Issus. The city is important because the Battle of Issus is known as one of the greatest battles in the ancient world and Alexander used the city to leave the sick and wounded there. Also, it signified the portion of Southern Asia Minor under Greek control.
  28. Roxane
    She was a princess who was born around 350 B.C. to 340 B.C. Somewhere in one of the Persian provinces in Asia. Sometimes during Alexander's travels to India (330 B.C. - 326 B.C.). She chose to marry him when she was presumably sixteen years old. She was important because her marriage with Alexander symbolized the first connection between Eastern and Western culture during the Hellenistic age.
  29. Archimedes
    He was born in the colony of Syracuse and lived during the third century B.C. He was a scientist and invented many things such as the planetarium, the value of pi, and developed the concept of gravity. He also invented many gadgets that would have helped society such as the pulley, but it was not used because people viewed applied sciences as disgraceful. He also developed the theory of density, which is the basis for all naval construction today, and also the volumes of spheres, cones, etc. He was significant because he was the greatest scientists of the ancient world.
  30. Hippocratic Oath
    It was a document written during the fifth century B.C. by Hippocrates and showed the ethics of medicine during the Hellenistic age. It stated that a patient should be healed to the best of the physician's power and knowledge and that a physician's mission should be to protect human life. It also stressed that physicians should not be corrupt and that confidentially regarding the patient is important. The Hippocratic Oath is important because it is a basis for modern physicians today even though it has been modified.
  31. Megarian Decree
    It was established by Pericles in Athens around 432 B.C. The decree was directed towards the city-state of Megara and banned Megarian traders from trading with Athens, which would cripple their economy and food supplies. Also, the decree was an attempt to fore the Megarians to join and be loyal to Athens. This was important because as the Megarians turned to Sparta for help, this would help precipitate the beginning of the Peloponnesian war.
  32. Theopompus
    Theopompus of Chios was a historian during the fourth century B.C., who wrote the text, Philippica, which was a history of king Philip of Macedon. In his text, he proclaimed that Philip was the greatest man of his time, and that modern scholars even today admire Philip's statesmanship, democracy, and generalship. Theopompus is important because as most texts regarding Philip that survived were usually from his rivals portraying negative views, his texts portrayed the true actions and personalities about Philip.
  33. Epicurus
    He came to Athens in 306 B.C. and created his own philosophy with his followers being called the Epicureans. He defined happiness as freedom from fear and preached that an individual's goal should be to attain happiness in life. He believed that the Greek Gods existed, but also believed that the Gods didn't participate in human affairs. He taught people not to fear death because he believed that birth was merely a combining of atoms while death was its dispersal. He was important because some of his teachings of an aesthetic life was used in Christianity.
  34. Aristarchos of Samos
    He was born around the late fourth century B.C. in the Greek island of Samos. He was an astronomer and mathematician who sought to find the actual diameter of the Earth, moon, and the sun. He also believed in the heliocentric theory that the Earth revolves around the sun, but it didn't gain widespread acceptance in society. He was important because of his heliocentric theory was revived by Copernicus.
  35. Republic
    Plato's Republic was written around 380 B.C. and it was a Socratic dialogue about how he disagreed with Athenian democracy. He proposed another way of governing and believed that social justice, "harmony of functions," was more important than equality. He had contempt for democracy because he thought that it was inefficient and he believed that society must be structured and disciplined towards natural efficiency. In the Republic, his idea of a better society was a shameful variation of the Spartan constitution. He stated that an education without morality is useless because evil may become more clever. The Republic is important because it remains a model to this day for aristocracy, a state-controlled education, and was the start of Utopian ideals.
  36. Democritus
    He was a pre-Socratic philosopher in Athens during the fifth century B.C. He was the first person to come up with the idea that invisible and indivisible particles known as atoms created the variety of objects in the world. He stated that atoms were everlasting, in constant motion, and were infinite in number, but couldn't prove atoms existed. He was important because of his atomic theory would become the basis for the scientific study of atoms.
  37. Xenophones
    He was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher during the mid-sixth to early-fifth century B.C. He attacked values of Greek myths in society and pointed out the human tendency to create deities in his/her own image which created doubts of any existence of a deity. For example, the Ethipians believed that the deities were dark skinned. However, he did believe in one God which could not be seen by the mind. He is important because he was the first person to criticize theology in society, and his views expressed elements of modernism.
  38. Protagoras
    He was a pre-Socratic philosopher during the sixth century B.C. He was a sophist and is also considered as the first professional sophist in Greece. Some of his famous sayings were that "man is a measure of all things" and that "truth is relative." He also considered that absolute truth and morals in society were pointless and that it is important for an individual to know what is only important to them. He is important because he is one of the most influential Sophists in Greece.
  39. Mardonios
    He was the son-in-law of the Persian king Xerxes and the heir to the throne but was left by Xerxes in Greece along with 300,000 soldiers after the burning of Athens. He then fought in the Battle of Plataea in 479 B.C., which was the final battle in the Greek and Persian war. While he was alive, he strengthened the Persian's morale and fought heroically, but the Persians fled after his death. He was important because he was supposed to be the heir to the Persian throne.
  40. Dialectic Method
    It was first used by the philosopher Socrates during the fifth century B.C. This method was known as a free discussion and that Socrates believed that a conclusion about the truth could not be reached without everyone's free opinions. Through the method, Socrates would continually question his student about the truth of a certain matter because he believed that knowledge had to be derived from doubt. This philosophical approach was important because it made Socrates unpopular to the Athenians because they believed that their traditions and customs should not be analyzed for truths.
  41. Museum Of Alexandria
    It became the new scientific and philosophical center of the world during the Hellenistic Age at around the third century B.C. It was there where the scientist Herophilos worked and studied about anatomy, the dissection of the human brain, and figured out that arteries only contained blood. Also, Erasistratos worked there and discovered that the veins and arteries were connected and also found out the functions of heart valves. The museum was important because it contained the largest library of the ancient world with about 7,000 volumes of texts.
  42. Epaminondas
    He was born in the small Greek city-state of Thebes during the late fifth century B.C. and eventually became a military genius. He invented the oblique order of attack and managed to defeat the Spartan army for the first time in history. He defeated the Spartans in Leuctra in 371 B.C. and developed a Theban hegemony, but proved to be ineffective. He was slain in a revolt in 362 B.C at the Battle of Mantinea which ended the Theban empire. He was important because he placed Thebes in a position in Greek politics.
  43. Telos
    Purpose; The concept that everything is devised for a purpose. Aristotle held that by logical thinking, man could gain the knowledge of Telos. This knowledge in turn gives meaning and guidance to man's life and brings him at the same time closer to God, whom Aristotle conceived as pure spirit and the source of ideas.
  44. Isonomia
    "Equal Law;" refers to equality before the law, the aim of the law under the new constitution of Cleisthenes. By a system of building safeguards and appointing men to high office by drawing lots from among the citizens and choosing out of the council of 500 50 men each month to carry out the ordinary business of government and by submitting all laws to a popular referendum at the ecclesia, Cleisthenes had brought about a working democracy in Athens.
  45. Inaros
    The Persian defeat by the Athenians at Marathon in 490 B.C. had significant repercussions in Egypt. On Darus I's death in 486 B.C., a revolt broke out in the delta, perhaps instigated by Libyans of its Western region. The result was that the Persian king Xerxes reduced Egypt to the status of a conquered province. Egyptians dubbed him the "criminal Xerxes." He never visited Egypt and appears not to have utilized Egyptians in the high positions in the administration. Xerxes' murder in 465 B.C. was the signal for another revolt in the Western delta. It was led by a dynast, Inaros, who acquired control over the delta and was supported by Athenian forces against the Persians. Inaros was crucified by the Persians in 454 B.C., when they regained control of most of the delta. In the later 5th century B.C., under the rule of Artaxerxes I (ruled from 465 - 425 B.C.) and Darius II Ochus (ruled 423 - 404 B.C.), conditions in Egypt were very unsettled, and scarcely any monuments of the period have been identified.