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  1. When does a mutation occur?
    during DNA replication
  2. What is a small change in genetic material in an organisms known as?
  3. What process does a mutation often affect?
    protein synthesis
  4. What is one example of a mutation in an antibiotic resistant bacterium?
  5. What are 3 clinically important issues associated with mutations?
    • mutations make cells resistant to treatments
    • mutations give the ability for organisms to produce harmful exotoxins
    • mutations create new strains of pathogens
  6. What are 2 reasons a bacterium would have special abilities, such as exotoxins or antibiotic resistance?
    • plasmid
    • mutation
  7. Besides DNA replication, what is one other way a bacterium may aquire a mutation or plasmid that gives special abilities?
  8. How does horizontal gene transfer among microorganisms influence health?
    the bacterium may share DNA which allows for a mutation or plasmid that makes them antibiotic resistant or make exotoxins
  9. What is the type of plasmid of a donor of a conjugation bacterium that it shares?
    fertility plasmid?
  10. What is horizontal gene trasferring?
    • conjugation
    • bacteria shares DNA via pili
  11. What is the donor conjugation bacterium called?
    F+ (because they have fertility plasmid)
  12. What is an F- bacterium?
    Bacteria that does not have a fertility plasmid
  13. What type of gene does the fertility plasmid have?
    gene for pilin protein which creates piling for conjugation
  14. What is the pilin protein used for?
    builds pili for bacteria to conjugate
  15. What is required for transferance of a fertility plasmid to a recipent?
  16. What is another name for the fertility plasmid?
  17. What are 2 other names for biotechnology?
    • genetic engineering
    • recombinant DNA technology
  18. Why is recombinant DNA technology called that?
    because DNA from one cell is combined with DNA from another cell
  19. What is the goal of biotechnology / genetic engineering / recombinant DNA technology?
    • to deliberatly put new DNA into cell
    • in order to make a desired protein
  20. What are 3 desired proteins genetic engineering might be made?
    • proteins to make insulin
    • proteins to eliminate oil spills and cleasn the environment
    • biofuel production
  21. What is the genetic engineering with human cells known as?
    gene therapy
  22. What does gene therapy aim to treat?
    genetic /hereditary disorders
  23. How does gene therapy aim to treat genetic disorders?
    add DNA to counteract abnormal DNA
  24. What is an example of the ethical and safety issues of biotechnology?
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