Exam 3

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barrydal000
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142264
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Exam 3
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2012-03-18 13:29:42
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Biology 101
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Evolution
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  1. Aristolte
    • Scala natura nature ladder
    • 1200-1300- chain of being
    • linear (had to follow the chain)
    • heirarchiacal
  2. Lamarck
    living things might change in someway somtime
  3. Linneaus
    • creation is branching
    • no so heirarchical ( not better or worse, just different)
  4. William Paley
    • Natural Theology his book
    • perfect design reveals perfect designers(god)
  5. Darwin
    English
    background
    went to med school and then theology school ended up not liking either essentially wanted to just play
  6. Darwin
    Voyage of the Beagle
    • 5 year trip
    • Biogeography= biology of where they live
    • Shared traits ---glyptodont(fossil) looked like armadillo, variety of animals on different islands
    • ***desent with modification - living things are related to things and changed over time
  7. Darwin
    Artifical selection
    Pigeons ->Modification of a species by human intervention so that certain desirable traits are represented in successive generations.

    • "Essay on the principle of population" by Matthyus
    • human atendancy to overreproduce (compettion of sources)
    • supply of food doesn't increase as fact( as population increaseses so does misery and vice)

    Darwin applied this to all living things
  8. Natural selection
    advantagous characteristics to help surevive
  9. Four Postulates of natural selection
    • heritable varation(differences)
    • more organisms born than survive to reproduce
    • differences between those that survive to reproduce and thosese that don't
    • change in the next generation
  10. Industrial Mechanism
    • Peppered moth- dark and light the light was advantagous -> due to the lichens that grow on the tree bark -light
    • before 1850 ~99% light and 1% dark

    • Industrial revolution
    • polutants in soot killed lichens, the tree bark is left behind, the dark moths started to survive ,, select against white form
    • 1985 90% dark
  11. Darwins finches
    • Medium- beaked ground finch
    • 1977- Peter and Rosemary Gramt went to a samll island( Daphine Minor)
    • drought 130-24 mm -> 84% died-----> ones that survived had deeper beaks
    • tribulus--has enough strength to break the seed
  12. Modern Synthesis
    Genetics and evolution
    • hypthesized--> carations -alleles- could introduce new alleles by mutations
    • couldbe be selected for or against(change over time one alleles)
  13. Directional selection
    • pepper moths--color shifted--created an advantage
    • antibiotic resistance
    • 1.) bunch of bacterial including resistant variety
    • 2.) get bathed in antibbiotic. most normal bacteria die
    • 3.) the resistant bac multiply and become more common eventuall, entire infection evolves into resistant strain
    • ex: tuberculosis and penasllin
  14. Stabalizing selection
    selection favoring intermediate phenotypes rather than those at one or both extremes.

    try to amke more homologous (Like each other)
  15. disruptive selection
    • two opposite outcomes/exremes
    • african seed cracker--more on one side of the graph and the other than in the middle
    • selection favoring the two extremes rather than the intermediate.
  16. Change agent
    natural selection
    the survival in nature of those individuals and their progeny best equipped to adapt to environmental conditions.
  17. sexual selection
    change agent
    • non-random mating
    • largest beak natural selection encourages birds to mate with big beaks
    • ex: guppies(south america) fall down ponds and waterfalls as fish move down chain, there are more predators and less prey
    • top of the water males= way more colors at top and less colorful at the bottom due to more predators on the bottom
  18. balanced polymorphis
    change agent
    • easy with heterozygous
    • an equilibrium mixture of homozygotes and heterozygotes maintained by natural selection against both homozygotes.
    • sicle cell anemia Hs Ha no sickle cells HsHs
    • malaria (hard to enter the cell that doesn't )
  19. genetic drift
    random changes in allele frquency (smaller populations)
  20. bottle neck and founder effect
    change agent
    • effect of the 3 boys now effect the rest of the offspring
    • no offspring can have the precious groups traits only ones who survived the bottle neck
  21. gene flow
    change agent
    • movement of genes bwtween isolated populations
    • ex: panda bear only eat bamboo but need big territory
    • like to be alone (minus mating)
    • with icrease of toads and whatnot the more they become solidarlly refined "isolated population"
    • encourage mating of the genes between the isolated populations (panda can now cross roads"
    • ex" red panda bear- zoo trade pandas to promote different genes
  22. species
    group of similarly constructed organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
  23. population
    group of organisms of the same area and naturally interbreed
  24. prezygotic mechanisms temporal isolation
    cicads don't mate due to age difference
  25. mechanical isolation
    boy parts and girl parts don't fit
  26. ecological isolation
    live in different habitats
  27. behavioral isolation (birds and mammals)
    • if mating patterns or rituals don't do the right call or flying pattern the won't mate
    • sometimes mating occurs but no fertiliztion occurs
    • sometimes it does occur and zygots form
    • hybrid inviability= don't survive birth
    • hybrid stentility = survive birth but can't reproduce
  28. allopatric speciation
    due to geographic isolation(great wall of china or pollen)
  29. sympatric speciation
    • (wheat) no barrier
    • two different wheat forms that reporduce and get double chromosomes (different forms of wheat) then it doubles again
  30. Darwin--desent with modification--natural selection
    • biogeography- differnt forms of similar organisms in different geogrphical locations
    • anatomy
    • homologous stuctures- same underlying physical structures modified for different purposes
    • analougous structure 0 body parts with different physical sturctures that share teh same function or purpose
    • convergent evolution-arms bones of all animals dinosaur to dolphin
  31. Branching descent
    vestigial structures
    • structures taht have no function in a particular species, but are functional in that species evolutionary relatives
    • human ex: body hair coccyx
    • whales" pelvis girdle
    • snakes: develop hind limbs
  32. embryonic development
    • early early stage looks similar and have gill slits
    • inherited ancestory
  33. biochemistry
    cytosome b strand has similar things and differences
  34. fossil records
    process of fossilization
    sedament layers with pressure and earths heat
  35. likelihood of fossiliaztion
    • sedimentary rock : bone teeth shell
    • soft bodies don't fossilize easy
    • how common was the organism
    • habitat
  36. fossil records
    geological column
    overlapping the time shots of layers of rock from all over
  37. fossil records
    lineages
    should show some similarities between species
  38. other fossil imediiteries
    • dino vs bird
    • archaeopteryx vs pigeon
    • in bwtween bird and dinosaur
  39. evolution hall marks of science
    • testable and falsifiable
    • stimulus to ruther research questions
  40. Taxonomy
    scince of naming and classifying living animals
  41. binomial nomenclature
    • linneaus--no common names- may not be refering to the same things
    • two parts: Genius specis
    • es: Homo sapiens- humans / Pan tryglodytes- monkeys/ Zea mays- corm
  42. taxonomy hierarchy
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genius
    • Species
    • "Do kings play chess on fine green sand"
  43. cladistics
    clade
    common descendants of teh same adjacent species
  44. cladistics
    study of the branching patterns of decent and relationship
  45. Domains
    • Bateria-disease
    • archea- extremophiles
    • eukarya - protisa fungus humans- have nucleus
  46. Eubacteria
    • unicellular prokaryote --have cell wall plasma membrane
    • most different chemically
    • most common disease causing organisms
    • spirochete that causes lyme disease
    • phyla: bacteria and cyan o bacteria- can photosynthesis, no nucleus, started oxygen
  47. Archea
    • unicellular prokaryote
    • more closely related to eukarya than bacteria, based on bio chem
    • extremophiles
  48. Eukarya
    • eukaryoes
    • unicellular and multicellular
    • four traditional domains
    • protista
    • plantae
    • animalia
    • fugi
  49. nutrition
    living things use chemicals and energy from the environment to maintain their orgainization
  50. energy sources
    • sun=phototroph
    • chemials=chemotrophs
  51. carbon sources
    • co2 = autotrph
    • comples organic carbon - heterotroph
    • ingestive - break it down on in side body
    • absorptive -break down on outside of the body
  52. Prokaryotic
    • domains(eubacteria an archea )
    • reproduction- asexual by binary fission- one parent offspring are identical to it
    • sexual reproduction - two parents contribut genetic information--nonidentical offspring--contributin 10% adding variety
  53. Eukaryotic
    • Domain-Eukarya (membrane bound organelles )
    • Nucleus- infolding of plasma membrane
    • Mitochondria
    • -endosymbiosis= taken into the early eukaryotic cell an -the 2 became dependant on each other
    • -circular DNA like bacteria---eukartoic- linear dna
    • -double membrand - 2 phospholipid bilayers
    • Chlorplast- similar lines of evidence(replicate when ever they want to)
  54. Domain Eukarya
    • kingdom protista
    • unicellular eukaryotic
    • phyla by movement
    • -ameobids--pseudopods--Amoeba
    • -flagellates--flagella ex: Trypansoma or Euglena
    • -ciliates--cilia-- paramecium
    • -nonmotile--don;t actively move ex: sporozoa--malaria--blood through mesitos--sickle cells

    • reproduction asexual by binary fission--clones
    • sexual--nonidentical--varietion-10-30% genes transfer
  55. Evolution of multicellurarity
    colonial aggregations
    • decrease surface area (water)
    • increase ability to maintain homeostais
    • interior cells
    • -lose contanct with environment and specialize--reproductive cells
    • exterior cells
    • -feeding and defence
  56. Doamin Eukarya
    kingdom fungi
    • eukarytotic multicellular
    • absorptive heterotrphs-nutriton from outside
    • chemotrphs-chemicals from outside
    • reproduction--asexual indentical or sexual(when no food) extend hyphae towards each other froms gamete, thos fuse together = zygospotangiom spores are produced--individualized
    • haploid as adults--> one copy of each chormosome
    • phyla by reproductive structures:
    • --zygomycota -> rhizopus
    • --ascomycota-->yeast,morles, molds(sac)
    • --basiodiomycota--> mushrooms(club fungus) cornsmutt(stalk cap gill reprodutcion
    • --imperfecta --Ex: penicilium
  57. importance for humans Fungi
    • food ---yeast bread
    • economic --elm tree disease has positive and minus outlooks
    • disease
    • ecological
    • --mycorrhizal fungus
    • ---N-fixation-> convert N to a way that the pant and humans can consume N to use for protein and Dna
    • -lichens
    • --fungus and green algae or Cyanobacteria
    • breaks down rocks to soil and are sensitive indicatiors of pollution
    • decomposers--nutrients return to soil

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