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  1. Progymnosperms
    • 360mya
    • Produced wood
    • heterosporous
    • didn't produce seeds
    • EXTINT
  2. gymnosperms
    • 305mya
    • -Ginko
    • -Cycads
    • -gnetophytes
    • -cornifers ("naked seeds")
  3. Angiosperms
    • 140mya
    • -Amborella
    • -Water lillies
    • -Monocots
    • -Eudicots
    • Flowering plants
    • SD traits
    • -flowers
    • -fruit
  4. Are flowers shared derived traits of seed plants?
    • NO, they are a shared derived trait of angiosperms
    • Shared derived traits are relative to the ENTIRE clade
  5. T/F
    IF a trait is unique to a group of animals it is a shared derived trait.

    A SD trait can be unique to a clade
  6. T/F
    A shared derived trait is always unique to a clade.

    Wings are a SD of birds, but also for bats and insects.
  7. Which of the following share the most recent common ancestor with squid?
    A. Jelly Fish
    B. Hagfish
    C. Sponges
    D. Starfish
    E. Butterflies
    E. Butterflies

    They are the closes on the phylogeny tree.
    Draw out the phylogeny tree and circle.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. T/F
    Basidocarps develop after plasmogamy.

    I have no clue why
  9. The closest relatices to ascomycetes are:
    A. Basidomycetes
    B. Clomeromycetes
    C. Zygomycetes
    D. Chytrids
    A. Basidomycetes

    Phyl. Tree: draw it and circle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. Basal Angiosperms
    • Amborella
    • Water lilies
    • Star anise
  11. Rise and radiation of angiosperms, mammals, primates and human evolution:
    • Cenozoic
    • .01mya-65mya
  12. Two types of land adaptations and why
    Protection- to keep from drying our

    Dispersal- move away from the parent
  13. Sporophyte
    Protects and nourishes the gametophytes
  14. The importance of the evolution of seed production
    Enhances the ability for plants to survive and reproduce in diverse, terrestrial, even dry environments
  15. What do gametophytes do?
    • protect from drying out
    • nutrients
  16. Advantages of seeds over spores
    • Seeds are multicellular
    • more resistant structure
    • has food supply
    • and protective coat
  17. Heterospory
    • The production of two different types of spores in plants:
    • -Megaspores
    • -Microspores
  18. Lichen
    • Symbiotic
    • Cyanobacteria
    • Green algea
  19. Benefits of lichen
    • "pioneer" of life form
    • Starters in process of succession
    • Nitrogen Fixation
    • Food for artic grazers
    • Environmental "canaries"
  20. Mycosis
    animal fungal infections
  21. Importance of Fungi
    • Decomposers and recyclers
    • Antibiotics
    • Food
  22. Draw asexual and sexual reproductive cycles
    Know the morp. of fungi
    Draw phyl. of Unikonta and fungi
    • know what zygosporangium, basidocarps and asci are and when they occur
    • descriv rols of fungi
  23. Clades within Unikonta
    • Amoevozoans
    • Opisthokonts
    • -fungi
    • -nucleariids
    • -animals
    • -choanoflagellates
  24. Choanoflagellates
    • "collared flagellate"
    • Heterotrophic
    • Free-living and sessile
    • Unicellular and some colonial
    • sister taxa to animals
  25. Cambrian Explosion
    and Hypothesis for reason why
    545ish mya

    • Ecological causes- predator-prey relationships
    • Geological causes- atmo. oxy increased =more active metabolism
    • Genetic causes- a SD in animals Hox Genes
  26. Characteristic of Animals
    • 1.Multicellular
    • 2. Digest internally
    • 3. Sexual reproduction, diploid dominant
    • 4. Embryonic development of tissues
    • 5. No cell walls- collagen holds cells together
    • 6. Nerve and muscle cells
    • 7. Hox genes
  27. Blastula
    • A multicellular hollow ball
    • specific regions give rise to specific components
  28. Gastrulation
    Layers of embryonic tissuse are produced that will develop into adult body parts
  29. T/F
    Collagen is unique to animals
    • True
    • Animals have no cell wall, so collagen is used to hold the cells together
  30. Hox genes
    • Unique to animals
    • 4 "clusters", 3 seperate mutations
    • --1 before
    • --craniates
    • --vertebrae
    • --naxasomes
  31. Derived traits of seed plants
    • -Further Reduced Gametophyte, which is now dependent on sporophyte for nutrients and protection
    • -Seeds
    • -Heterospory
    • -Pollen Grains
    • -Ovule
  32. Image Upload 1
    yeah just know it:(
  33. Dericed traits of Chordates
    • Notochord
    • Dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • Pharyngeal slits
    • Muscular, post-anal tail
  34. Notochord
    • A longitudinal, flexible rod
    • located between the digestive tuve and the nerve cord
    • Provides skeletal support
  35. Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord
    • Develops into the vertebrate
    • Solid and usually ventral
    • Develops into the central nervous system=Brain and spinal cord
  36. Pharyngeal slift
    • Allow water that enters the mouth to exit without entering digestive tract
    • suspension-feeding in invertebrate chordates
    • Modified into gills in vert.
    • Tetrapods-Develop into parts of the ear and other structures in the head and neck
  37. Muscular Post-Anal tail
    • helps aquatic species swim
    • Reduced during development in many groups
  38. Lancelets
    • Aquatic
    • Suspension feeders
    • Keep the characteristics of the chordat body plan as adults
  39. unicates
    • Sessile
    • Planktonic
    • Some colonial
    • Hermaphroditic
    • Suspension feeders
  40. Craniates
    • Chordates with skulls
    • Highly developed heads evolved independently in other animals
    • HOX gene
  41. Craniates: Shared derived traits
    • Brain,eyes, skull
    • Two cluster of HOX genes
    • Duplicated families genes
    • Neural crest
    • Pharyngeal clefs evolved into gills
    • More active
    • Two-chambered heart
  42. Neural Crest
    • Tissues of the neural crest give rise to variety of craniate structures:
    • -Teeth
    • -Some of the vones and cartliage of the skull
    • -Inner layer of sking (dermis)
    • -Several types of neurons
    • -Sensory capsules which eyes and other sense organs develop
  43. What is the one group of Craniates that are not vertebrates
  44. List the Groups of Craniates
    • hagfishes (myxini)
    • Lampreys (Petromyzontida)
    • Sharks, rays, chimaeras (Chondrichthyes)
  45. The last derived clade of craniates is....
    Hagfishes (Myxini)
  46. Hagfish
    • No vertebrae
    • Cartilaginous cranium
    • Notochord as adult
    • Scavengers
    • Slime Glands
    • Teeth made of Keratin
  47. Derived Traits of Vertebrates
    • Another HOX gene- vertebrate
    • A backbone than encloses spinal cord
  48. What is the only jawless verrebrates?
    • Lampreys
    • They are also the oldest linving lineage of vertebrates
  49. Lampreys
    • Only 35 specias
    • Suspension-feeding larvae
    • Adults are parasitic
    • No real jaw
    • Cartliage skeleton (including vertebrae)
  50. Evolution of Bones and Teeth
    • Started as unmineralized cartilage
    • Then mineralized developing bone
    • Started with the teeth
    • armor was derived from dental mineralization
  51. Gnathostome derived characters
    • Jaws-Hinged, with teeth
    • HOX gene duplication
    • Beginnings of mineralized skeleton
    • Lateral line systems (sensitive to vibrations; in water only)
  52. The Deconian Perios
    • 360-400 mya
    • "The age of Fishes"
  53. Mollusca
    • Diverse
    • Coelomates
    • open Circulatory system
    • Seperate sexes
    • aquatic (mostly)
  54. Mollusca Four Main Body Parts
    • Foot
    • Visceral mass
    • mantle
    • Radula
Card Set:
2010-04-13 23:33:39
Seed plants

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