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denote all the mental processes we use to transform sensory input into knowledge.
referring to the feelings that result from excitation of the sensory receptors.
referring to our initial interpretations of the sensations.
a spot with no sensory receptors, where the optic nerve goes through the layer of receptor cells on its way back toward the brain.
perceptions that involve an apparent discrepancy between how an object looks and what it actually is. they are often based on inappropriate assumptions about the stimulus characteristics of the object being perceived.
- Which line is longer? to most people, the top line appears longer than the bottom line. The lines are actually identical in length.
- Which line is longer? To most people, the vertical line appears longer than the horizontal line, although both lines are the same length.
- Which horizontal line is longer? To most people, the upper line appears longer, although both lines are the same length.
Carpentered World Theory
Suggests that people (at least most Americans) are used to seeing things that are rectangular in shape and unconsciously come to expect things to have squared corners.
Front-Horizontal Foreshortening Theory
Suggests that we interpret vertical lines as horizontal lines extending into the distance.
Carpentered World and Front-Horizontal Foreshortening
- Both assume that the way we see the world is developed over time through our esperiences.
- What we see is a combination of the way the object reflects light to our eyes and our learning about how to see things in general.
- Although learning helps us see well most of the time, it is the very thing that causes us to misjudge optical illusions.
- We live in a 3-D world that is projected onto our eyes in two dimensions.
- Compared the responses to the Mueller-Lyer and horizontal-vertical illusions using groups in England, rural India and New Guinea.
- He found that the English people saw the lines in the Mueller-Lyer illusion as being more different in length than did the two other groups. Indians and New Guineans were more fooled by the horizontal-vertical illusion than were the English.
Symbolizing three dimensions in two
Suggests that people in Western cultures focus more on representations on paper than do people in other cultures--and in particular, spend more time learning to interpret pictures. (representative of their lifestyles).
Segall and Colleagues
- Compared people from three industrialized groups to people from 14 nonindustrialized groups on the Mueller-Lyer and the horizontal-vertical illusions.
- They found that the effect of the Mueller-Lyer illusion was stronger for the industrialized groups, whereas the effect of the vertical-horizontal illusion was stronger for the nonindustrialized groups.
- The effects of the illusions declined and nearly disappeared with older subjects.
Used Ponzo illusion and comparing the performance of people in both rural and urban environments, some of whom had continued their education and some of whom had not.
Pollack and Silvar
- Showed that the effects of the Mueller-Lyer illusion are related to the ability to detect contours, and this ability declines with age.
- As people age and are more exposed to sunlight, less light enters the eye, and this may affect people's ability to perceive the lines in the illusion.
- In addition, they showed that retinal pigmentation is related to contour-detecting ability.
- Non-European people have more retinal pigmentation, and so are less able to detect contours. Suggested that the cultural differences could be explained by racial differences in retinal pigmentation.
- Picture of Depth Perception.
- Highlighted cultural differences in perception.
- What is the hunter's target? Americans and Europeans would say it is the gazelle in the foreground. The Bantu in Hudson's research, however, said it was the elephant.
Masuda and Nisbett
- Subjects were asked to watch a scene.
- Immediately after viewing the scene, they were asked to recall as many objects in the scene as possible.
- The researchers then categorized the responses of the respondents into whether the object recalled was a focal, main object of the picture, or a background object. They found that there were no difference in recalling the focal, main object of the scene between the Americans and Japanese; the Japanese did, however, remember more of the background objects.
- basic mental process in which people group things together.
- categorizing happens in the basis of similarities.
- labels are attached to groups of objects perceived to have something in common.
- Chinese and American children were presented with sets of 3 objects and were asked to select two of the objects that sohuld go together.
- American children tended to group objects according to shared features, whereas the Chinese children tended to group objects according to shared features, whereas the Chinese children tended to group objects according to shared contextual or functional relationships.
Culture and Dreams
Punamaeki and Joustie
Participants recorded the dreams they recalled every morning for 7 days, and researchers coded their manifest contents. The results indicated that the dreams of the Palestinian children from Gaza incorportaed more external scenes of anxiety, whereas the Finnish children's dreams had more "inner" anxiety scenes.
- Dream sharing and interpretation was a common practice among Mayan Indians in Central America, regardless of the role or position of the person in the culture, and was important in the teaching of cultural folk wisdom.
- Dreams were an important part of the cultural system, inolving and organized conventional set of signs.
Dreams constituted a local system of knowledge that helped in the assessment and communication of personal and social distress and conflict, and hence were an important vehicle for social understanding.
Hobson and Flanagan
- Dreams may reveal emotionally salient concerns in an individual's life.
- In dreams wer are often thinking about what we are already thinking about.
- It may not be the content of dreaming that is meaningul, but the emotions that it brings up, such as anxiety, which is "the leading emotion in all dreams and all dreamers".
One of the first to suggest that cultures differ in their time perspective and orientation.
- largest-scale cross-cultrual study on time perception.
- Long- vs Short-Term Orientation culters.
- Long-Term cultures delay gratification of material, social, and emotional needs, and think more about the future.
- Short-Term cultures think and act more in the immediate present and the bottom line.
- surveyed 36 countries of the world about time perceptions.
- characterized each of the countries in terms of their time orientations.
- Pace of life correlated with seeral ecological and cltural variables.
- Hotter cities: slower than cooler ones.
- Cultures with vibrant and active economies: faster.
- Individualistic cultures: faster.
- Worse helath but greater happiness: faster.
Piaget's intelligence definition
reflection of cognitive development through a series of stages, with the highest stage corresponding to abstract reasoning and principles.
Spearman and Thurstone's intelligence definition
Viewing it is as a general concept ocmprised of many subcomponents, or factors, including verbal or spatial comprehension, word fluency, perceptual speed, and others.
Describe intelligence using 3 dimensions: operation, content, and product. Each of which has separate components.
- General intelligence representing overall mental ability.
- Factor called g.
- Typically measured through a process of combining and summarizing the various component scores of a multiple-factor intelligence test.
Intelligence across Culture
- Different cultures value different traits and have divergent views concerning which traits are useful in predicting future important behaviors.
- People in different cultures not only disagree about what constitutes intelligence but also about the proper way to demonstrate those abilities.
- A reason why it is difficult to compare intelligence cross-culturally is that tests of intelligence often rely on knowledge that is specific to a particular culture.
Refers to the biological and physiological differences between men and women, the most obvious being the anatomical differences in their reproductive systems.
- Describe the behaviors and patterns of activities men and women may engage in that are directly related to their biological differences and the process of reproduction.
- ex. breast-feeding.
Describe the degree of awareness and recognition of sex and sex roles an individual may have.
Male and Female Sexual Identity
- Male: his awareness that he has the potential to impregnate women and knows the necessary behaviors.
- Female: woman's awareness of her reproductive potential and her knowledge about behaviors that lead to pregnancy.
Refers to the behaviors or patterns of activities that a society or culture deems appropriate for men and women.
Refers to the degree to which a person adopts the gender-specific behaviors ascribed by his or her culture.
Refers to the degree to which a person has awareness or recognition that he or she adopts a particular gender role.
Refer to the psychological or behavioral characteristics typically associated with men and women.
Family studies: Georgas, et. al
- Families assessed through out 30 countries.
- Divisions of labor.
- 3 types of roles parents (mothers and fathers) played: expressive, financial and childcare.
- expressive: maintaining a pleasant environment and providing emotional support for one another.
- financial: including contributing to and managing finances.
- Fathers: primarily concerned with finances first, expressive issues next and childcare last.
- Mothers, however, differed according to culture. Less-affluent cultures, mothers were most concerned with childcare. in more affluent cultures, mothers appeared to be equally concerned with all three family roles.
The Williams and Best Studies
- The best-known study of gender stereotypes across culture.
- Individuals were sampled from 30 different countries.
- The study used a questionnaire known as the adjective check list.
- List of 300 adjectives. Respondents were merely aked to report the characteristics generally associated with males and females in their culture.
- The degree of consensus received in describing males and females is so large that it may be appropriate to suggest that the researchers have found a psychological universal wehn it comes to gender sterotypes.
- Judgements about whatmales and females ought to be like or ought to do.
- Subjects completed a ACL on what they are and what they wanted to be.
- Subjects also completed a sex-role ideology scale that generated scores between two polar opposites, labeled "traditional" and "egalitarian".
Gender-Role Ideology on younger populations
- Reslts indicated that girls were less traditional than boys and that adolescents from wealthier and more individualistic countries were less traditional than adolescents from poorer and more collectivist countries.
Division of labor and actual behaviors of males and females
- is a result of their biological and physiological differences .
- This creates a different psychology.
- Psychological gender differences across cultures are not simply products of biology and culture; they are also important reinforcers of culture, feeding back into the culture behaviors, gender roles, and gender-role ideologies.
Cognitive Differences between Males and Females
- Male superiority on the task tend to be found in culltures that were tight, sedentary and agriculturally based.
- Female superiority was found in cultures that were loose, nomadic, and based on hunting and gathering. In these latter cultures, the roles ascribed to males and females are relatively flexible.
Conformity and Obedience
- Tighter cultures: Females are more conforming.
- Looser cultures: Less gender difference on conformity, and in some of these cultures, males were found to be more conforming than females.
The magnitude of the sex difference in physical aggression was related to levels of gender empowerment and individaulism in each of the countries; cultures that were more individalistic and that empowered women more had less female victimization and more male victimization.
Refers to a gender identity that involves endorsement of both male and female characteristics.
Incorporates many traditional expectations of the male gender role, such as being unemotional, strong, authoritative, aggressive, and masculine.
- Emotional: formation of an emotional bond with other people.
- Sexual: occurs when a partner has sex or engages in sex-related behaviors with others.
- Males: more jealous about sexual infidelity.
- Females: more jealous about emotional infidelity.
A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.
This model views disease as resulting from a specific, identifiable cause originating inside the body.
Cause of disease, whether viral, bacterial, or other; root of all physical and medical diseases.
Positiv state of health that goes beyond the absence of disease.
Body image and American Culture
- High class: low body weight.
- Low class: high body weight.
- British ranking as more favorable images of anorexic girls vs Kenyan females who rank bulkier women as more favorable.
Research has demonstrated convincingly that psychosocial factors play an important role in maintaining and promoting health, and in the etiology and treatment of disease.
Alameda County study: Social Isolation and Mortality
Individuals with the fewest social ties suffered the highest mortality rate, and people with the most social ties had teh lowest rate.
Culture and Eating Disorders
- Ghana vs USA.
- Ghanaians were more likely to rate larger body sizes as ideals in their society. Americans, especially females, were more likely to have dieted. American females also scored higher on dietary restraint, disordered eating behavior, and experiencing weight as a social interference.
- Mexicans students were less concerned about their own weight, and were more accepting of overweight people, than were the American students.
- Exposure to Western culture signifcantly predicted more disturbed eating attitudes.
- Obesity rate quadrupled for children in the last 30 years in USA. Due to fast food consumption, soft drinks and lack of exercise.
Culture and Suicide
- Cross-cultural differences in the nature of suicidal behavior, all of which point to the different ways in which people of different cultures view not only death, but life itself.
- Japanese pilots during WWII who deliberately crashed their planes into enemy targets. These individuals clearly placed the welfare, spirit, and honor of their country above the value of their own lives.
- Sociocultural change has long been identifeied as a predictor of suicide.
- Stresses associated with social and cultural changes have also been implicated in the suicide rates of many other cultural groups.
- One factor that may be closely related to culture and suicide is religious beliefs.
Dr. Jack Kevorkian
Subjective experience; part of emotion.
- Transient, neurophysiological response to a stimulus that excites a coordinated syste of components; they inform us about our relationship to the stimulus, and prepare us to deal with it in some way.
- Quick, last only a few seconds or minutes.
- Composed of expressive behavior, subjective experience, physiological reactions, cognitions and motor behavior.
- Functional: tell us something important about our relationship to the emotion-eliciting stimulus, they help prepare our bodies for action, and have imporant social meanings.
- Help us solve complex social coordination problems that occur becuse human social life is complex.
face, voice, or other nonverbal actions.
increased heart rate, faster breathing.
moving towards or away of an object.
Specific patterns of thinking.
- Emotions that focus on the self.
- Include: shame, guilt, pride, and embarrassment.
- Important in the study of culture because we believe that humans universally have a unique knowledge of self that is different from that of other animals, thus giving rise to self-conscious emotions.
- Contempt and disgust.
- Only humans have the interpersonal version of disgust, in which we can be disgusted at others as people.
- These emotions have shown to be particularly explosive and devastating emotions when seen in marital interactions.
Lie about it by expressing it when they do not feel it, or expressing an emotion different from the one they are feeling.
Basic Emotions Theory
- Theory that states that humans share a common base of emotion with their nonhuman primate relatives.
- States the universality in emotion.
- Expressed universally in all humnas via facial expressions, regardless of race, culture, sex, ethnicity, or national origin.
- Brought about by the same types of underlying psychological elicitors.
- Loss--> sadness. Threat---> fear.
- Associated with unique physioogical signatures in both central and autonomic nervous system.
- Suggested that facial expressions of emotion, like other behaviors, are biologically innate and evolutionarily adptive.
- Humans, Darwin argued, express emotions in theri faces in exactly the same ways around the world, regardless of race or culture.
- Facial expressions can also be seen across species. Have both communicative and adaptive value.
- A series of studies conducted by Ekman and Friesen and by Izard that demonstrated the pancultural universality of facial expressions of emotion.
- If the expressions were universal, judges in all cultures would agree on what emotion was being portrayed; the data revealed a very high level of agreement across all observers in all five cultures in the interpretation of six emotions.
- When the nature of the experiment was changed for preliterate tribes the results were amazingly similar to those obtained in literate, industrialized societies.
- Data from spontaneous facial expressions.
- Events or situations that trigger or elicit an emotion.
- Also known as emotion elicitors.
- Universality of antecedents or elicitors of emotion.
- Scherer: used questionnaires designed to assess the quality and nature of emotional experiences in many different cultures.
Universality in Expressive Behavior
- Once emotions are aroused, they trigger a series of events.
- Matsumoto and Willingham's: involved 84 athletes from 35 countries. Demonstrate that the facial expressions actually do occur wehn emotion is aroused in people of different cultures.
- Elkman: individuals participated in emotionally arousing condition and in which their facial expressions matched to the universal facial configurations of emotion.
- The same facial musculature that exists in adult humans exists in newborn infants, and is fully functional at birth.
- The available evidence to date clearly supoorts the notion that discrete facial expressions are universal, genetically encoded, and linked with those of our primate ancestors in evolution.
- First year: undifferentiated negative expressions.
- Second year: differentiated discrete expressions of anger and sadness.
- Preschool age: children display discrete expressions of the other emotions as well.
Universality in Emotion Recognition
Recognition of the 6 basic emotions, contempt, embarrassment and pride.
Cultural Display Rules
Culturally prescribed rules that govern how universal emotions can be expressed. Thse rules center on the appropriateness of displaying emotions, depending on social circumstances. Learned by people early in their lives, they dictate how hte universal emotional expressions should be modified according to the social situation. By adulthood, these rules are quite automatic, having been very well practiced.
Ways in which displya rules can act to modify expressions
- Deamplification: express less than actually felt.
- Amplification: express more than actually felt.
- Neutralization: show nothing.
- Qualification: show the emotion but with another emotion to comment on it.
- Masking: mask or conceal feelings by showing something else.
- Simulation: show an emotion when they really don't feel it.
Expression of Personal Emotions in Self-Ingroup and Self-Outgroup Relationships in Individualistic and Collectivistic Cultures
- Self-Ingroup Relations
- Individualistic: ok to express negative feelings; less need to display positive feelings.
- Collectivistic: suppress expressions of negative feelings; more pressure to display positive feelings.
- Self-Outgroup Relations
- Individualistics: suppress negative feelings; ok to express positive feelings as would toward ingroups.
- Collectivistic: encouraged to express negative feelings; suppress display of positive feelings reserved for ingroups.
Facial expressions of emotion are under the dual influence:
- of universal, biologically innate factors and culturally specific, learned display rules.
- When an emotion is triggered, a message is sent to the facial affect program, which stores the prototypic facial configuration information for each of the universal emotions.
- When display rules do not modify an expression, the universal facial expression of emotion will be displayed.
Rules that govern the interpretation and perception of emotion. These are learned, culturally based rules that shape how people of each culture view and interpret the emotional expressions of others.
The ability of individauls from a certain culture to recognize emotions of others of the same culture relatively better than of those from a different culture.