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2012-03-26 16:25:12

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  1. What 4 components are enveloped viruses made of?
    • acellular
    • have nucleic acid (core)
    • protein coat (capsid)
    • protein envelope
    • *enzymes within capsid
  2. What are the 3 components of a naked virus?
    • nucleic acid (core)
    • protein coat (capsid)
    • *enzymes within capsid
  3. What is embedded in the envelope of viruses?
  4. What is the alternate name for the nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) of a virus?
  5. How can viruses survive with only DNA or RNA and not both?
    they infect other cells and use that cell's DNA or RNA to reproduce
  6. What do all living cells have in the nucleic area?
    DNA and RNA (both)
  7. What is it that surrounds the core?
    protein coat (capsid)
  8. What is the capsid?
    protein coat surrounding the nucleic acid of virus
  9. What are the specific organisms in which a specific virus will infect?
    host range organisms
  10. What is viral specificity?
    specific cells virus infects of host range organisms
  11. How does viral specificity relate to the cold virus?
    • only infects epithelial cells in the nose and throat
    • not harmful because epithelial cells regenerate quickly
  12. How does viral specificty relate to rabies?
    • only infects brain cells
    • brain cells dont repair, damage is permanent in survivors
  13. What do the hsot cells of viruses require for a virus to attach?
    viral receptors in the membrane
  14. What are the 6 steps of naked virus replication?
    • attachment (host cell receptors)
    • penetration (endocytosis)
    • uncoating (host cell's digestive enzymes remove coat)
    • building viral parts
    • release (host cell lyse)
  15. What step of viral replication does endocytosis occur?
  16. What uncoats teh virus within a host cell?
    the host cell's digestive enzymes
  17. How is a naked virus released after replication?
    the host cell lyses
  18. What are the 6 steps to enveloped virus replication?
    • attachment (to host cell receptors)
    • penetration (membrane fusion of spikes)
    • uncoating (host cell's digestive enzymes remove coat)
    • building viral parts
    • release or "budding out" (host cell's membrane becomes viral envelope)
  19. How does a host cell die when an enveloped virus infects it?
    the cell shrinks until it can't function
  20. How does an enveloped virus penetrate a host cell?
    the spikes on the envelope of the virus fuse with the host cell's membrane
  21. What type of virus never leaves the body and why?
    • proviruses
    • embedded in genetic code
  22. What are 3 types of proviruses?
    • herpes
    • papilloma
    • retro (HIV)
  23. Which 2 of the three types of proviruses are enveloped?
    • herpes
    • retro viruses
  24. What is different between a naked/enveloped virus's replication and a pro virus?
    • after uncoating...
    • viral DNA is inserted to host cell's nucelus
    • (remains for the duration of cell's life)
    • (becomes active virus when immunity drops)
  25. What is different between herpes virus and retro viruses?
    • herpes is enveloped DNA containing pro virus
    • retro viruses are enveloped RNA containing pro viruses
  26. What type of viruses are papilloma?
    • naked
    • DNA containing
    • pro virus
  27. What are 3 possible effects of pro viruses?
    • latency
    • reactivation/recurrence
    • cancer
  28. What type of cancer is papilloma virus associated with?
    cervical cancer
  29. What is the term for a pro virus that has infected a person but shows no signs or symptoms?
  30. What is happening during the reactivation / recurrence effect a pro virus may have?
    signs /symptoms return
  31. What are 2 STDs associated with the papilloma pro virus?
    • cervical/ penile cancer
    • genital warts
  32. What type of pro virus is HIV?
    • retro virus
    • enveloped
  33. What type of pro virus contains reverse transcriptase?
    retro virus
  34. What do retro viruses have that turns a host cell's RNA into DNA?
    reverse transcriptase
  35. What are the 5 steps for how retro viruses infect cells?
    • attachment (via spikes)
    • penetration (membrane fusion)
    • uncoating (host cell's digestive enzymes)
    • reverse transcriptase turns RNA into DNA
    • DNA is intergrated into host cell's nucleus
  36. What is the main problem involving cancer in general?
    overproduction of cells
  37. How do viruses relate to cancer?
    • viral infection affects gene of host cell's DNA for cell reproduction
    • causes it to stop reproducing or over produce
  38. When is interferon released?
    when a cell has become host to a virus
  39. What is the protein that alerts neighboring cells they are in danger of being infected with a virus?
  40. How does interferon travel to neighboring cells from the cell that made it?
    • when the cell lyses due to being a host to a virus, the interferon is released along side the virus copies
    • either the interferon or the virus will make it to neighboring cells first
  41. What do neighboring cells use to interfere with viral production?
  42. What are the 5 TOURCH agents?
    • toxoplasma gondii
    • others (ex. syphylis, HIV, 5th disease, chicken pox)
    • rubella virus (german measles)
    • cytomegalovirus
    • herpes simplex (type 2/ gential herpes)
  43. What is special about TORCH agents?
    they are infections that can cross the placenta and harm the fetus
  44. How often do emerging infectious diseases occur?
  45. What are diseases caused by microorganisms that are new, or changing?
    emerging infectious diseases
  46. What is a disease that is discovered within the last 40 years?
    emerging infectious disease - new
  47. What is a negative change in a person from a healthy state?
  48. What type of diseases are caused by microorganisms?
    infectious diseases
  49. What 3 things would make a disease emerging?
    • if its new (within 40 yrs)
    • if its changing (become treatment resistant)
    • if its a recent outbreak
  50. What are 4 examples of new diseases and what 2 things do they have in common?
    • bird flu/ swine flu/ H1N1/ avian disease
    • HIV
    • SARS
    • Mad Cow/ v-CJD

    • all viruses
    • all shown up in the past 40 years
  51. What are 2 changing diseases and what made them change?
    • MRSA
    • TB

    changed into drug resistant
  52. Where do emerging infectious diseases occur before they develop in people?
    in animals
  53. What is the One Health perspective?
    • emerging infectious diseases occur in animals before people
    • animal care and health care communicating globally to treat emerging infectious diseases
    • increased communication
  54. What 3 things should you do in your profession to administer the One Health perspective?
    • be aware of norms
    • be aware of what is abnormal
    • report what is abnormal
  55. What is one thing that changes to make a disease an emerging infectious disease?