EE Bio

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dante01
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142359
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EE Bio
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2012-03-18 23:13:41
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  1. How do abiotic factors vary in different parts of the ocean?
    • • Abiotic
    • – Physical
    • • Light
    • • Temperature
    • • 3D structure
    • • Bottom composition
    • – Chemistry
    • • Salinity
    • • Nutrients
    • • Pollutants
    • • Affect primary production, behavior, body shape,coloration, health etc.
  2. How do biotic factors vary in different parts of the ocean?
    • • Biotic
    • – Other individuals (same species)
    • – Other species
    • • Influence behavior
    • – Competition
    • – Predation
    • – Cooperation
  3. How are living things distributed in the ocean in terms of biodiversity, productivity and species composition?
    • 1. Estuary
    • 2. Intertidal
    • 3. Shelf
    • 4. Pelagic
    • 5. Epipelagic
    • 6. Benthic
    • 7. Deep sea
  4. What factors can limit population growth?
    • 1. Abiotic environment
    • – ex. Light/nutrient limitation
    • 2. Overcrowding
    • 3.Competition
    • – resources
    • – space
    • 4.↓ Food,↑Waste
    • 5. Best competitors survive and reproduce (natural selection)
    • → Evolution and speciation
    • 6. Carrying Capacity
    • • Maximum number of individuals environment can support
  5. How can carrying capacity can be shifted?
    • – Increase food supply
    • – Decrease mortality
  6. importance of biodiversity
    • – Lives of all species on planet interconnected
    • • Energy flow, food, oxygen
    • • Nutrient cycles, waste processing
    • • Climate
    • – Higher productivity and efficiency
    • – Higher resilience
  7. Factors influencing productivity
    • 1. Resources
    • – Light
    • – Nutrients
    • 2. Energy flow
    • – Sun
    • – Primary producers
    • – Consumers
    • 3. Nutrient flow
    • – Decomposers
    • – Producers
    • – Consumers
    • – Decomposers
  8. How do various organisms facilitate or exclude other individuals/species?
  9. Carbon cyle
    • Photosynthesis
    • – Organic molecules
    • • Carbohydrates
    • • Lipids
    • • Proteins
    • • Nucleic acids
    • Respiration
    • • Continually cycled through system
    • – Producers
    • – Consumers
    • – Decomposers
  10. Nitrogen cycle
    • 1. Nitrogen Fixation
    • • Organic molecules
    • – Proteins
    • – Nucleic acids
    • 2. Excretion
    • • Continually recycled
    • – bacteria
    • 3. Denitrification
  11. Phosporous cycle
    • 1. Primary Production
    • • Organic molecules
    • – Nucleic acids
    • 2. Sedimentation
    • • Recycling
    • – geological
  12. Marine Productivity: Coastal areas
    • • Most productive
    • • Most diverse
    • • Most human impact
    • – Highest populations
    • – Development
    • – Use of habitat
    • – Waste disposal, pollution
    • – Exploitation of resources
  13. Simple food chain: Antarctic waters
    • • Nekton (baleen whale)
    • ^
    • • Zooplankton (krill)
    • ^
    • • Phytoplankton (diatoms)
  14. How does energy move up a food chain?
  15. What advantages or disadvantages are there to living at various levels of a food web?
    • 1. Advantages of consuming at lower levels
    • • Larger food source
    • • Higher energy
    • • Less accumulation of toxins (bioaccumulation ofpollutants)
  16. How can changes in populations of one trophic level affect organisms at other levels?
  17. What strategies for predation and avoiding predation are used in different situations?
  18. Intraspecific (Competition)
    • Between individuals of the same species
  19. Interspecific (Competition)
    • Between individuals of different species
  20. Competitive exclusion:
    – One competitor outcompetes and excludes another
  21. Factors influencing the competition
    • 1. Physical changes can favor less competitive species/individuals allowing both to survive
    • – Seasonal changes
    • – Disturbances
    • • Storms
    • • Predation
    • 2. Avoiding competition
    • • Resource partitioning
    • – Spatially
    • – Temporally
    • – Specialization
  22. Advantages of specialization
    • – Reduced competition
    • – Increase efficiency
  23. Disadvantages of specialization
    – Limited by resource
  24. Advantages of generalization
    – More options
  25. Disadvantages of generalization
    – Potentially less efficient
  26. Increased predation can....
    • • Increased predation can wipe out prey populations,leading to decline in predator populations (limited resource)
    • • Prey populations must be larger than predator populations
  27. Indirect effects of Predation
    • • Effects on species other than the prey species
    • – Ex. Kelp forests/urchin barrens
  28. Predation strategies
    • • Speed, power
    • • Surprise
    • • Disable
    • • Lure
    • • Trap
    • • Overtake
    • • Drill into
    • • Partial vs. total consumption
    • – Chiton vs. parrotfish
  29. Avoiding predators Strategies
    • • Speed
    • • Schooling
    • • Camouflage
    • • Burying/burrowing
    • • Spines/shells
    • • Toxins/poisons
    • • Regeneration
  30. Coevolution
    • –evolve in response to other species
    • – “Arms race”
  31. Where does historical climate data come from?
    • • Ice cores
    • • Tree rings
    • • Corals
    • • Marine sediments
    • • Historical records
  32. Consequences of Climate change
    • • Polar and glacial ice melt
    • • Sea level rise
    • • Accelerated warming(decreased light reflection)
    • • Changing weather patterns
    • • Altered productivity
    • • Coral bleaching
    • • Shifts in species distributions and reproduction
    • • Freshwater shortages (↓snow melt)
    • • Ocean acidification (CO2 dissolved in seawater)
  33. Ocean acidification
    • • Dissolves calcium carbonate CaCO3
    • • organisms with shells, skeletons from protists to corals,Molluscs to vertebrates
  34. Consequences of Nitrogen cycle alteration
    • Consequences
    • – Smog (irritation, lung/heart disease, cancer)
    • – Damage to ozone layer
    • – Acid rain
    • – ↓ terrestrial primary production andbiodiversity
    • – Eutrophication ↑ marine algal growth →dead zones and harmful algal blooms
  35. Highly variable environments; most accessible to study
    • 1. Intertidal
    • – Temperature
    • – Salinity
    • – Air exposure
    • – Hard or soft substrate
    • 2. Estuaries
    • – FW + seawater– Runoff
    • • Sediments
    • • Nutrients
    • • Pollution
  36. Rocky intertidal: Formation
    • – Geological activity
    • • Active margins
    • – Glaciation
    • • scraping
    • – Wave action
  37. Rocky Intertidal: Challenges
    • 1. Dessication
    • -Water loss while exposed
    • 2. Temperature Variation
    • -Air more variable than water
    • 3. Salinity Variation
    • - Extremes do cause mortality
    • 4. Wave Action
    • -uneven distribution of wave energy
    • - Exposed: wave shock
    • -Sheltered: sedimentation
    • 5. Tide Restricted feeding
    • - higher in the intertidal= less time submerged=less filter feeding
    • 6. Space
    • - grow on each other
  38. Rocky intertidal: Strategies/Adaptations
    • 1. Mobile
    • • follow water
    • • Hide in crevices/shade
    • • Cluster together
    • • Seal air out
    • 2. Sessile
    • • Seal air out
    • • With stand water loss
    • • Settle in close groups
    • 3. Physiological
    • • wider tolerance
    • 4. Morphological
    • • Ridges: ↑ SA
    • • Coloration
    • – White: reflect light
    • – Dark: absorb light
    • 5. Behavioral
    • • Seal up or move when salinity changes
  39. Vertical zonation
    • • Species typically grow within narrow vertical range (bands)
    • • Vary in size by slope of shoreline
  40. Rocky intertidal: Spray Zone
    • - Above high tide mark
    • - Lichens, cyanobacteria, encrusting algae
  41. Rocky intertidal: Middle intertidal
    • – Regularly submerged/emerged
    • -Barnacles, Mussels, Rockweeds
  42. Rocky intertidal: Lower intertidal
    • – Immersed most of the time
    • – Very diverse, similar to subtidal
    • – Echinoderms, worms, arthropods, molluscs
    • – Brown, green, red algae, surf grass
  43. Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
    • • Diversity maximum at intermediate levels of disturbance
    • – both biotic and abiotic disturbances
  44. Tidepools
    • • Relief from dessication
    • • Allow organisms to live inhigher zones
    • •Subject to variation in heatand salinity
  45. Soft-bottom intertidal
    • Gravel, sand, mud
    • • Occur where sediments accumulate
    • - most animals burrow: Bivalves, worms, crustaceans
  46. Soft-Bottom Intertidal: Feeding
    • 1. Deposit feeding (mud)
    • – Clams: use siphons
    • – Crabs: feeding appendages
    • – Sea cucumbers, worms: “vacuum”
    • – Sand dollars: use tube feet
    • 2. Suspension feeding (sand)
    • – Polychaete worms: tentacles
    • – Polychaete worms/snails: mucus net
    • 3. Scavengers:
    • – Crustaceans
    • 4. Predators
    • – Moon snail, some worms, birds (low tide), fishes (high tide)
  47. Estuaries
    • Freshwater + seawater
    • • Link land and sea
    • • Semi-enclosed
    • • High productivity
    • • High human impact
  48. Types of Estuaries
    • 1. Drowned river valley
    • – Formed by high sea level after last ice age
    • 2. Bar-built estuary
    • – Sediment build-up restricts seawater flow
    • 3.Tectonic estuary
    • – Sinking land floods
    • 4. Fjord
    • – Glacier formed
  49. Estuaries: Salinity
    – Varies with FW/SW input
  50. Estuaries: Sediments
    • – Suspended particles block light penetration
    • – Can clog feeding surfaces and kill some organisms
  51. Estuaries: FW species
    • – Upper estuary
    • – Must adapt to tolerate salt
  52. Estuaries: Estuarine species
    • – Throughout estuary
    • – Adapted to brackish water
  53. Estuaries: Marine species
    • – Lower estuary
    • – Must adapt to less salt
  54. Estuaries: When salinity drops
    • – Behavior: seal out water
    • – Osmoconform: internal concentration varies with seawater (many invertebrates)
    • – Osmoregulate: use gills, kidneys,etc. to conserve salts and eliminate excess water (some invertebrates, fishes
  55. Estauries: Plants
    • • Land plants adapted to tolerate salt
    • – Absorb salts and concentrate sugars to match external concentrations
    • – Excrete excess salts via salt glands (some cordgrasses and mangroves)
    • – Accumulate water to dilut esalts (succulents)
  56. Estuaries: Productivity
    • • Highly productive
    • – Nutrients (land and sea)
    • – Decomposition of organic material (nutrients)
    • – Nitrogen-fixation (bacteria)
  57. Estuaries: Primary Producers
    • – Bacteria
    • – Phytoplankton (benthic and planktonic)
    • – Macroalgae (some habitats)
    • – Plants (grasses/mangroves)
  58. Estuaries: Mud flat life
    • 1. Infauna:
    • – Bivalves: Variety of clam species
    • – Crustaceans: ghost shrimp, crabs
    • – Worms: innkeeper worm (shares burrow with apolychaete, crab, and fish!)
    • 2. Epifauna:
    • – Gastropods: mud snails, moon snails
    • – Crustaceans: amphipods, shrimps, swimming crabs
    • – Worms: polychaetes
  59. Mud flat life: Major predators
    • • Fish: high tide
    • • Birds: low tide
  60. Salt Marshes
    • 1. Protect shoreline from wave action
    • 2. Nutrient cycling
    • 3. Water purification
  61. Salt Marshes: Animals
    • • Bacteria
    • – Decay, nitrogen fixation
    • • Cyanobacteria
    • • Diatoms
    • • Filamentous green algae
    • • Burrowing animals
    • • Small invertebrates
    • – Some breath air
    • • Terrestrial animals
    • • Marine animals
  62. Oyster reefs
    • • Oysters form complex reef as they grow on each othersshells
    • • Provide habitat for many species
    • – Macroalgae
    • – invertebrates
    • • Clarify water (filter feeders)
    • • Protect coastline
  63. Estuaries: Human Impact
    • 1. Habitat destruction: 1/3 of US estuaries gone
    • – Dredging (harbors)
    • – Filling (development)
    • – River diversion/damming
    • – Shrimp/fish mariculture (mangroves)
    • 2. Erosion/flooding
    • – Climate change and sea level rise
    • 3. Pollution
    • – Eutrophication, oil spills
    • – Trash/plastic
  64. Continental shelf
    • Soft bottom, seagrass beds, kelp forests, coral reefs
    • • Richest part of the ocean
    • • 90% of global fish catch
    • • Oil and minerals

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