health psych 1
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what is medical psychology
testing and psychotherapy for emotional problems
what is behavorial medicine?
clinical uses of techniques derived from experimental analysis of behavior
what are the goals of behavorial medicine?
- improved prevention
who was involved with behavioral medicine?
what did Skinner use as behavioral medicine experiement? what did they do ?
- pushing a lever = shock = avoid
- + and - reinforcement
what lead to todays meaning of behavorial medicine?
Yale university conference in 1977
what is psychosomatic medicine?
"all in head" - peptic ulcers, asthma
relation between mind and body
who was involved with psychosomatic medicine?
what did he methods did he focus on?
clinical experience and hunches
how does health psychology contribute?
- enhancement of health
- prevention and treatment of disease
- identify risk factors
- improve health care system
- shape public opinion
what is health psychology?
specialty within the field of psychology concerned with physical health
what is the biomedical model?
traditional view of western medicine which defines health as the absense of disease
steps of the biomedical model? (3)
- identify pathogen
- remove pathogen
- health restored
what is a pathogen ?
disease causing organism
alternative model that includes a holistic approch to to medicine?
what does the biopsychosocial model involve?
- social influences
using what model did chronic diseases start to replace infectious diseases as leading causes of death
the biopsychosocial model uses its factors to produce _____ and ________
health and disease
what is the 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 rule
- 1/3 of life do what you want
- 1/3 of life counteracting what you did with the first 1/3 or don't get last 1/3 of life
health psychologists are ______ first and ______ second?
psychologists and specialists
what is the placebo effect?
- around for centuries
- not investigated till recently
what contributes to the placebo effect?
expectancy and learning
what is a single blind study?
the experiementers knows the participants don't
what is a double blind study?
neither the experimentors or participants know.
what is a correlation study?
- descriptive research between two variables
- describe the relationship
pearson r = close to 1 = ______ ______
closer to 1 the ______ the correlation
what is the correlation study missing?
cause and effect
what is a cross sectional study?
condition as it is now
what is a longitidual study?
test then and test now
cross sectional study
- incabable of revealing changes over time
what is missing from the cross sectional and longitidual studies?
cause and effect
what is a experimental study?
comparison of two groups, referred to as control and experiment
what two factors does the experimental study have?
- cause and effect
- dependent and independent variables
independent variable = _____ group
dependent variable = ________ group
what is the ex post facto design?
one of several types of experimental studies, resembles an experiement in some ways but differs from others
what does a randomized study help control?
what is ex post facto design used for?
- variable of interest with select particpants who already differ on this variable - subject variable
- ethics = big problem
what is epidemiology?
branch of medicine that investigates factors contributing to increased health or the occurance of disease
what is prevelance?
proportion of population that has a particular disease or condition at a specific time
what is incidence?
measures the frequency of the new cases during a specified period
what three broad methods does epidemiology use?
- observational studies
- randomized controlled trials
- natural experiements
what are observational studies?
analzye the occurance of a specific disease in a given population
what is a prospective study?
population of disease-free participants and follow thenm over period of time to determine whether a given condition such as: cig smoking is related lung cancer later on
what are retrospective studies?
what are they also referred to as?
begin with a group who is suffering from a particular disease or disorder and then look backward for characteristics that differ from people who don't have the condition
randomized controlled trials =
what is self selection?
participants pick what group their in : control/experiment
what is a natural experiment?
researcher picks independent variable and does not manipulate it
what is a meta-analysis?
allows researchers to evaluate many research studies on the same topic, even if research methods are different
what is the alameda study?
- prospective study of a single community to identify health practices that protect against death and disease
what is relative risk?
refers to the ratio of the incidence or prevelance of disease in an exposed group to the incidence or prevelance of that disease in an unexposed group
what is absolute risk?
refers to persons chances of developing a disease or disorder independent of other people having the disease or disorder
what is the dose-response relationship?
- is a direct consistant association between independent variable such as behavior and dependent variable such as disease
- -higher dose= higher risk
what is reliability?
extent to which it yields consistant results
what is validity?
extent to which an instrument measures what it is suppose to measure
what is the health belief model?
beliefs are important contributers to health seeking behaviors
what are the four beliefs of the health belief model?
what is the theory of reasoned action?
assumes that people are generally reasonable and make systematic use of information when deciding how to behave
four steps of the theory of reasoned action
what is illness behavior?
before diagnosis, activities undertaken by people who experience symptoms but who have not recieved a diagnosis
what is sick role behavior?
term applied to the behavior of people after diagnosis
who is more likely to use healthcare
what are some cognitive/demographic factors effecting healthcare?
- economic level
what factors do people consider when choosing a health care practitioner?
problems encountered when recieving health care?
- treated as non-person
segall believes the sick role has 3 rights and 3 duties what are they?
- make decision concerning health care
- excempt from normal duties
- dependent on others
- maintain health
- perform routine health care management
- use range of health care resources
what happens when someone is treated as a nonperson in a healthcare setting?
- concerns and comments overlooked
- identities overlooked
- lack of information
irrational health care model
- assesses the tendency to appraise health-related information in an irrational manner
- -reflect bias
what is positive reinforcement?
positive stimuli added to the situation increasing probability the behavior will occur
what is punishment?
changes behavior by decreasing chances that a behavior will be repeated
what is negative reinforcement?
behavior strengthened by removal of unpleasent valued stimuli
what is adherance?
compliance when told what to do
reasons for adherance?
- duration of TX
- medication side effects
what are personal characteristics that affect adherance?
personal characteristics of MD affecting adherance
- confidence of MD
- MD is warm
- bidirectional communication
what is self-efficacy?
peoples beliefs in their capability to exericise measures of control over their own functioning
what was involved in Banduras triangle of reciorical determinism?
what is compliance?
the patients behaviors that conform to physicians orders
what is a neurotransmitter?
where chemicals are released
what does the autonomic nervous system contain?
paraNS(nonstressful) and SNS (emergency)
what did Cameron come up with?
fight or flight response
Waht did Taylor come up with ?
Tend and befriend (nuturing and providing support)
What did Seyle come up with?
General Adaption Syndrome
what is the general adaption sydrome?
the bodies generalized attempt to defend itself against noxious agents
The three stages of the general adaption syndrome?
- alarm reaction
- resistance stage
- exhaustion stage
Lazarus came up with what model?
what is the transactional model?
refers to the relationship between person and enviroment
what is perception?
not what happened to you but what you think happened to you
when is perception harmful?
- personally important
- belief of no cope
what tests measure stress?
- social readajustment rating scale
- daily hassle index for college students
what does Kobasa believe?
- stress had less of an effect if the person had a hardy personality
- -internal locus
- -stressors = challenges
what are three sources of stress?
- diaster events
- life events
- daily hassles
what is norepinephrine?
what are hormones?
chemicals secreted by glands of endocrine system
what is cortisol?
hormone that exerts wide range of effects on major organs in body
what is epinephrine?
(adrenaline) - produced by adrenal medulla and accounts for 80% of the hormones of the adrenal gland
what are the three types of appraisal used to assess situations?
what is the hypothalamic-pituatary-adrenal axis?
interactions between hypothalamis and pituatary and adrenal glands
what is psychoneuroimmunolgy?
linking stress to illness via immune system
what did ader and cohen design?
used classical conditioning on rats using saccharine as a suppressent
what is HIV?
virus that damages the immune system creating a defiency that leaves the person vulnerable to variety of diseases
what is AIDS?
disease caused by HIV which destroys the Tcells and macrophages in the immune system
what is the diathesis-stress model?
model suggesting that some people are vulnerable to stress-diseases because of their genetic weaknesses
what is PTSD?
characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor
what is an autoimmune disorder?
depression or PTSD
what are migrane headaches?
recurrent attacks of pain that vary widely in intensity, frequency, and duration
what is the lymphatic system?
how the immune system is spread out throughout the body
what is rheumatoid athritis?
chronic inflammatory disease of the joints
what are antigens?
the substance that causes the immune system to produce antibodies against it
what are A-beta fibers?
- mylinated, conduct neural impulses faster then unmylinated C-fibers
- easily stimulated and larger than A-delta
what are C-fibers?
- require more stimulation to fire
- stimulation results in slower developing sensation of burning or dull aching
what is chronic pain?
pain that last months or years
what is acute pain?
- pain that results of injury
- rapid onset
- sudden inflammation
what is phantom limbs?
strange pain following amputation
what is the somatosensory system?
the system that conveys information from the body to the brain
what are endorphins?
naturally occuring chemicals in the brain that affect pain perception
what did Melzack and wall create?
the gate control theory
what is the gate control theory?
spinal cord as a gate for sensory input that the brain interprets as pain
what are analgesic drugs?
relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness
what is the McGill pain questionare?
developed for single definition more objective than asumption
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