health psych 1

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health psych 1
2012-03-27 16:04:46
health psych

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  1. what is medical psychology
    testing and psychotherapy for emotional problems
  2. what is behavorial medicine?
    clinical uses of techniques derived from experimental analysis of behavior
  3. what are the goals of behavorial medicine?
    • improved prevention
    • diagnosis
    • treatment
  4. who was involved with behavioral medicine?
  5. what did Skinner use as behavioral medicine experiement? what did they do ?
    • rats
    • pushing a lever = shock = avoid
    • + and - reinforcement
  6. what lead to todays meaning of behavorial medicine?
    Yale university conference in 1977
  7. what is psychosomatic medicine?
    "all in head" - peptic ulcers, asthma
    relation between mind and body
  8. who was involved with psychosomatic medicine?

    what did he methods did he focus on?
    sigmound freud

    clinical experience and hunches
  9. how does health psychology contribute?
    • enhancement of health
    • prevention and treatment of disease
    • identify risk factors
    • improve health care system
    • shape public opinion
  10. what is health psychology?
    specialty within the field of psychology concerned with physical health
  11. what is the biomedical model?
    traditional view of western medicine which defines health as the absense of disease
  12. steps of the biomedical model? (3)
    • identify pathogen
    • remove pathogen
    • health restored
  13. what is a pathogen ?
    disease causing organism
  14. alternative model that includes a holistic approch to to medicine?
    biopsychosocial model
  15. what does the biopsychosocial model involve?
    • biological
    • psychological
    • social influences
  16. using what model did chronic diseases start to replace infectious diseases as leading causes of death
    biomedical model
  17. the biopsychosocial model uses its factors to produce _____ and ________
    health and disease
  18. what is the 1/3, 1/3, 1/3 rule
    • 1/3 of life do what you want
    • 1/3 of life counteracting what you did with the first 1/3 or don't get last 1/3 of life
  19. health psychologists are ______ first and ______ second?
    psychologists and specialists
  20. what is the placebo effect?
    • around for centuries
    • not investigated till recently
  21. what contributes to the placebo effect?
    expectancy and learning
  22. what is a single blind study?
    the experiementers knows the participants don't
  23. what is a double blind study?
    neither the experimentors or participants know.
  24. what is a correlation study?
    • descriptive research between two variables
    • describe the relationship
  25. pearson r = close to 1 = ______ ______
    closer to 1 the ______ the correlation
    • almost perfect
    • stronger
  26. what is the correlation study missing?
    cause and effect
  27. what is a cross sectional study?
    condition as it is now
  28. what is a longitidual study?
    test then and test now
  29. cross sectional study
    • speed
    • incabable of revealing changes over time
  30. what is missing from the cross sectional and longitidual studies?
    cause and effect
  31. what is a experimental study?
    comparison of two groups, referred to as control and experiment
  32. what two factors does the experimental study have?
    • cause and effect
    • dependent and independent variables
  33. independent variable = _____ group
  34. dependent variable = ________ group
  35. what is the ex post facto design?
    one of several types of experimental studies, resembles an experiement in some ways but differs from others
  36. what does a randomized study help control?
  37. what is ex post facto design used for?
    • often
    • variable of interest with select particpants who already differ on this variable - subject variable
    • ethics = big problem
  38. what is epidemiology?
    branch of medicine that investigates factors contributing to increased health or the occurance of disease
  39. what is prevelance?
    proportion of population that has a particular disease or condition at a specific time
  40. what is incidence?
    measures the frequency of the new cases during a specified period
  41. what three broad methods does epidemiology use?
    • observational studies
    • randomized controlled trials
    • natural experiements
  42. what are observational studies?
    analzye the occurance of a specific disease in a given population
  43. what is a prospective study?
    population of disease-free participants and follow thenm over period of time to determine whether a given condition such as: cig smoking is related lung cancer later on
  44. what are retrospective studies?
    what are they also referred to as?
    begin with a group who is suffering from a particular disease or disorder and then look backward for characteristics that differ from people who don't have the condition

    case-control studies
  45. randomized controlled trials =
  46. what is self selection?
    participants pick what group their in : control/experiment
  47. what is a natural experiment?
    researcher picks independent variable and does not manipulate it
  48. what is a meta-analysis?
    allows researchers to evaluate many research studies on the same topic, even if research methods are different
  49. what is the alameda study?
    • prospective study of a single community to identify health practices that protect against death and disease
    • -70's
  50. what is relative risk?
    refers to the ratio of the incidence or prevelance of disease in an exposed group to the incidence or prevelance of that disease in an unexposed group
  51. what is absolute risk?
    refers to persons chances of developing a disease or disorder independent of other people having the disease or disorder
  52. what is the dose-response relationship?
    • is a direct consistant association between independent variable such as behavior and dependent variable such as disease
    • -higher dose= higher risk
  53. what is reliability?
    extent to which it yields consistant results
  54. what is validity?
    extent to which an instrument measures what it is suppose to measure
  55. what is the health belief model?
    beliefs are important contributers to health seeking behaviors
  56. what are the four beliefs of the health belief model?
    • susceptibility
    • severity
    • benefits
    • barriers
  57. what is the theory of reasoned action?
    assumes that people are generally reasonable and make systematic use of information when deciding how to behave
  58. four steps of the theory of reasoned action
    • beliefs
    • attitudes
    • intention
    • behavior
  59. what is illness behavior?
    before diagnosis, activities undertaken by people who experience symptoms but who have not recieved a diagnosis
  60. what is sick role behavior?
    term applied to the behavior of people after diagnosis
  61. who is more likely to use healthcare
  62. what are some cognitive/demographic factors effecting healthcare?
    • age
    • gender
    • stress
    • economic level
  63. what factors do people consider when choosing a health care practitioner?
    • cost
    • location
    • gender
    • culture
  64. problems encountered when recieving health care?
    • stress
    • avaiability
    • treated as non-person
  65. segall believes the sick role has 3 rights and 3 duties what are they?
    • rights:
    • make decision concerning health care
    • excempt from normal duties
    • dependent on others

    • Duties:
    • maintain health
    • perform routine health care management
    • use range of health care resources
  66. what happens when someone is treated as a nonperson in a healthcare setting?
    • concerns and comments overlooked
    • identities overlooked
    • lack of information
  67. irrational health care model
    • assesses the tendency to appraise health-related information in an irrational manner
    • -reflect bias
    • -inconsistant
  68. what is positive reinforcement?
    positive stimuli added to the situation increasing probability the behavior will occur
  69. what is punishment?
    changes behavior by decreasing chances that a behavior will be repeated
  70. what is negative reinforcement?
    behavior strengthened by removal of unpleasent valued stimuli
  71. what is adherance?
    compliance when told what to do
  72. reasons for adherance?
    • severity
    • duration of TX
    • medication side effects
  73. what are personal characteristics that affect adherance?
    • age
    • gender
    • social support
  74. personal characteristics of MD affecting adherance
    • confidence of MD
    • MD is warm
    • bidirectional communication
  75. what is self-efficacy?
    peoples beliefs in their capability to exericise measures of control over their own functioning
  76. what was involved in Banduras triangle of reciorical determinism?
    • enviroment
    • person
    • behavior
  77. what is compliance?
    the patients behaviors that conform to physicians orders
  78. what is a neurotransmitter?
    where chemicals are released
  79. what does the autonomic nervous system contain?
    paraNS(nonstressful) and SNS (emergency)
  80. what did Cameron come up with?
    fight or flight response
  81. Waht did Taylor come up with ?
    Tend and befriend (nuturing and providing support)
  82. What did Seyle come up with?
    General Adaption Syndrome
  83. what is the general adaption sydrome?
    the bodies generalized attempt to defend itself against noxious agents
  84. The three stages of the general adaption syndrome?
    • alarm reaction
    • resistance stage
    • exhaustion stage
  85. Lazarus came up with what model?
    transactional model
  86. what is the transactional model?
    refers to the relationship between person and enviroment
  87. what is perception?
    not what happened to you but what you think happened to you
  88. when is perception harmful?
    • personally important
    • vulnerable
    • belief of no cope
  89. what tests measure stress?
    • social readajustment rating scale
    • daily hassle index for college students
  90. what does Kobasa believe?
    • stress had less of an effect if the person had a hardy personality
    • -commitment
    • -internal locus
    • -stressors = challenges
  91. what are three sources of stress?
    • diaster events
    • life events
    • daily hassles
  92. what is norepinephrine?
  93. what are hormones?
    chemicals secreted by glands of endocrine system
  94. what is cortisol?
    hormone that exerts wide range of effects on major organs in body
  95. what is epinephrine?
    (adrenaline) - produced by adrenal medulla and accounts for 80% of the hormones of the adrenal gland
  96. what are the three types of appraisal used to assess situations?
    • primary
    • secondary
    • reappraisal
  97. what is the hypothalamic-pituatary-adrenal axis?
    interactions between hypothalamis and pituatary and adrenal glands
  98. what is psychoneuroimmunolgy?
    linking stress to illness via immune system
  99. what did ader and cohen design?
    used classical conditioning on rats using saccharine as a suppressent
  100. what is HIV?
    virus that damages the immune system creating a defiency that leaves the person vulnerable to variety of diseases
  101. what is AIDS?
    disease caused by HIV which destroys the Tcells and macrophages in the immune system
  102. what is the diathesis-stress model?
    model suggesting that some people are vulnerable to stress-diseases because of their genetic weaknesses
  103. what is PTSD?
    characteristic symptoms following exposure to an extreme traumatic stressor
  104. what is an autoimmune disorder?
    depression or PTSD
  105. what are migrane headaches?
    recurrent attacks of pain that vary widely in intensity, frequency, and duration
  106. what is the lymphatic system?
    how the immune system is spread out throughout the body
  107. what is rheumatoid athritis?
    chronic inflammatory disease of the joints
  108. what are antigens?
    the substance that causes the immune system to produce antibodies against it
  109. what are A-beta fibers?
    • mylinated, conduct neural impulses faster then unmylinated C-fibers
    • easily stimulated and larger than A-delta
  110. what are C-fibers?
    • require more stimulation to fire
    • stimulation results in slower developing sensation of burning or dull aching
  111. what is chronic pain?
    pain that last months or years
  112. what is acute pain?
    • pain that results of injury
    • rapid onset
    • sudden inflammation
  113. what is phantom limbs?
    strange pain following amputation
  114. what is the somatosensory system?
    the system that conveys information from the body to the brain
  115. what are endorphins?
    naturally occuring chemicals in the brain that affect pain perception
  116. what did Melzack and wall create?
    the gate control theory
  117. what is the gate control theory?
    spinal cord as a gate for sensory input that the brain interprets as pain
  118. what are analgesic drugs?
    relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness
  119. what is the McGill pain questionare?
    developed for single definition more objective than asumption