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- Gordon Moore, co-founder of
- Intel Corp stated that because of technology improvements in electronic chip
- design and manufacturing, “The number of transistors per-square inch on an
- integrated chip doubles every 18 months.”
Four critical skills for MIS
- 1. Abstract reasoning: the ability to make and manipulate models.
- 2. Systems thinking: model system components and show how component’s inputs and outputs relate to one another.
- 3. Collaboration: Develop ideas and plans with others. Provide and receive critical feedback.
- 4. Experimentation: create
- and test promising new alternatives, consistent with available resources.
Components of an information system:
- Five components:
- and People
what is MIS?
Management Information Systems: the development and the use of information systems that help businesses achieve their goals and objectives
High Technology vs Low Technology
- High tech: a customer
- support system that keeps track of the equipment that customers have and the
- maintenance schedules for that equipment and then automatically generates email
- reminders to customers.
- Low tech: a file of email addresses and an email program
Attributes of Information
- Relevant (to context and to subject),
- Just sufficient,
- and worth its cost.
Information Technology vs Information systems
Information technology refers to the products, methods, inventions, and standards that are used for the purpose of producing information. Information systems is an assembly of hardware, software, data, procedures, and people that produces information.
What is collaboration?
- occurs when two or more people work together to achieve a common goal, result, or work product.
- Critical drivers: communication, content management, and workflow control.
Components of Collaborative systems
- Hardware: Client hardware consists of the computers and other communication devices (iphones, blackberries) that users employ to participate in collaboration activities. Server hardware consists of computers that are installed and operated by IT professionals that support the collaboration
- Software: Google docs and Spreadsheets, Microsoft Groove, and Microsoft
- Data: Documents, Discussion lists, task lists, wikis, blogs.
- Procedures: for using the software and team collaboration.
- People: communication
- and collaboration skills.
Information Technology for communications
- Conference calls, webinars, or multi-party text chat.
- Virual meetings: participants don’t meet in the same place and possible not at the same time.
- Sharedview: Microsoft product for
- sharing a computer screen that you can download for free.
- Webex: a popular commercial webinar application used in virtual sales presentations.
- Videoconferencing, email, Discussion forums, team surveys.
Collaborative systems to manage content
- No control: file server, or
- email with attachments.
- Version Management: Wikis (a shared knowledge base in which the content is contributed and managed by the wiki’s users), Google docs
- and Spreadsheets, and Microsoft Groove. Version Control: Microsoft Sharepoint.
a collaboration productthat includes version management and other useful tools
the most popular for general business use. Check documents in and out.
Collaborative Systems for decision making
- Operational decisions (concern day-to-day activities) are supported by transaction processing systems.
- Managerial decisions (concern the allocation and utilization of resources) are supported by collaboration (team feedback and iteration).
- Strategic decisions (concern broader-scope, organizational issues) are always collaborative.
Porter’s Five Force model
- Bargaining power of customers,
- Bargaining power of suppliers,
- Threat of substitutions,
- Threat of new entrants,
- and Rivalry.
- Cost or Differentiation,Industry-wide or focus
- (Cost-Industry-wide: lowest cost across the industry;
- Differentiation-Industry-wide: Better product/service across the industry;
- Cost-focus: Lowest cost within an industry segment;
- Differentiation-focus: Better product/service within an industry segment)
Value chain structure
- value (amount customer is willing to pay).
- Margin (difference between value an activity generates and cost of activity.
- Inbound logistics: receiving, handling raw materials and other inputs.
- Operations: transform or assemble materials into finished products.
- Outbound logistics: deliver finished products to customers.
- and sales: create marketing strategies and sell products or services to customers.
- Services: after-sale customer support. Procurement, Technology
- development, Human resources, and firm infrastructure.
Basic components of computer hardware
- Input hardware: keyboard,mouse, scanner, UPC reader, and Microphone. Central Processing Unit (CPU) is“the brain.”
- Dual processors= 2 CPUs.
- Quad Processors= 4 CPUs.
- Process: CPU, Main Memory (RAM) and special function cards.
- Output hardware: video display,printer, speakers, slide projector, and plotter.
- Storage hardware: saves data and programs: magnetic disk, optical disk, and magnetic tape.
- Binary digits (bits): either a zero or a one. And are used for computer data because they are easy to represent electronically.
- Byte= number of bits to represent one character.
- Kilobyte (K)= 1,024 bytes.
- Megabyte (MB): 1,024 K= 1,048,576 bytes.
- Gigabyte(GB): 1,024 MB= 1,073,741,824 bytes. Terabyte (TB): 1,024 BG= 1,099,511,627,776
How do computers work?
- The CPU is the major actor.To run a program or process data, the computer first transfers the program or data from disk to main memory. Then, to execute an instruction, it moves the
- instruction from main memory into the CPU via the data channel or bus.The CPU has a small amount of very fast memory called a cache. The CPU keeps frequently used instructions in the cache. Having a large cache makes the computer faster,but cache is expensive.
Client and Server
- Client: word processing,spreadsheets, database access, etc.
- Servers: provide some service (process emails, process websites, large, shared databases, etc)
servers that coordinate their activities in an incredibly sophisticated and fascinatingtechnology dance.Receive and process hundreds to thousands of service requestper minute.
network of computers that operates as an integratedwhole...appears to be a single computer.
Major Operating Systems
- Mac OS (pre-2006),
- Mac OS (post-2006),
- and Linux.
Major Server Operating Systems
Open source community
a loosely coupled group of programmers who mostly volunteer their time to contribute to code to develop and maintain Linux.
the source code of the program is available to the public.
- the source code is highly protected and only available to trusted employees and carefully
- vetted contractors.
- 1.Determine base requirements.
- 2.Forecast requirement changes during the budget period.
- 3 Prepare the budget.
- 4 Assess results.
- 5.Document results
data that describe data.
Components of DB Application system
- Database Application (Forms, Reports, Queries, Application Programs),
- DBMS (Database Management System),
- Database (Tables, Relationship, Metadata)
Standard Query Language(SQL)
is an international standard language for processing a database
used to read, insert,modify, and delete data.
show data in a structured context
user types in keyword and it shows the results
process large organizational and workgroup databases.
designed for smaller, simpler database applications.
Data models for database development
describes the data and relationships that will bes stored in the database (like a blueprint).
a tool for constructing data models. Developers use it to describe the content of a data model by defining the things (entities) that will be stored in the database and the relationships amoung those entities.
the process of converting a poorly structured table into two or more we-structured tables.
Major network types
Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), and the Internet and internets.
Components of a Local Area Networks
- Switch: a special-purpose computer that receives and transmits messages on the LAN.
- Network Interface Card (NIC): connects the device’s circuitry to the cable, and works with programs in each device to implement the protocols necessary for communication.
- Onboard NIC: NIC built into the computer’s circuitry,
- MAC (media access control)address: world-wide unique identifier of each NIC.
Modems or modulator/demodulator
performs conversion of the digital data in the computer to analog signal.
DSL (Digital subscriber line)
operates on the same lines as voice telephones, but they operate so that their signals do not interfere with voice telephone service.
provide high-speed data transmission using cable television lines.
Wan wireless is used for
stuff like kindles
Public Switch Data Network
a network of computers and leased lines that is developed and maintained by a vendor that leases time on the network to other organizations.
- Virtual private network: uses the Internet to create the appearance of private point-to-point
the process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication.
a computing device that prevents unauthorized network access and can be a special-purpose computer, or it can be a program on a general-purpose comuter or on a router.
TCP/IP – OSI protocol
- Layer 5: Application.
- Layer 4: Transport.
- Layer 3: Internet.
- Layer 2: Data Link.
- Layer 1: Physical.
- Merchant companies:
- Business-to-consumer (M2C)
- Business-to-Business (B2B)
- Business-to-government (B2G)
- Nonmerchant companies:
Technology for E-commerce
consists of computers that run Web servers and process application programs
consists of computers that run a DBMS that processes SQL requests to retrieve and store data.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
a set of rules for transferring documents and data over the Internet.
a document, coded in one of the standard page markup languages, that is transmitted using HTTP.
programs that run on a server tier computer and that manage HTTP traffic by sending and receiving Web pages to and from clients
a computer program on the client computer that processes Web pages
an application program that runs on a server tier computer
several or many Web server computers
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
the most common language for defining the structure and layout of Web pages
a notation used to define a data element for display or other purposes.
eXtensible Markup Language
the product of a committee that worked under the auspices of the World Wide Web Consortium. It provides superior means for computer programs to exchange documents.
Web 2.0 is classified as
is a pre-release version of software that is used for testing; it becomes obsolete when the final version is released.
refers to a loose grouping of capabilities, technologies, business models, and philosophies.
one friend sending an ad message to many friends, most of whom send that message in turn to their friends, etc
the process by which organizations involve their users in the design and marketing of their products.