Foodchem Lecture 13 Pics

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    Overview of muscle structure
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    Muscles are made up of muscle fiber bundles held together by connective tissue (collagen) and anchored by tendons (collagen)
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    Muscles are made up of muscle fiber bundles held together by connective tissue (collagen) and anchored by tendons (collagen)
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    • Muscle bundle
    • Each fiber bundle contains many long muscle cells (called muscle fibers) which can be seen by the naked eye)
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    • Muscle bundle
    • Each fiber bundle contains many long muscle cells (called muscle fibers) which can be seen by the naked eye)
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    Myofibrils within the cell are composed of overlapping myofilaments which result in regions of dark and light striations (sarcomeres) when viewed under plane polarized light
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    Myofibrils within the cell are composed of overlapping myofilaments which result in regions of dark and light striations (sarcomeres) when viewed under plane polarized light
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    • Left = myosin myofilament (thick)
    • Right = actin myofilament (thin)
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    Myofilament is made up of two groupings of contractile proteins - actin and myosin
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    • Looking at the myofilament in cross section
    • Central stem is the myosin bundle with radially distributed rods of actin
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    • Close up of the myofibrillar proteins
    • Responsible for muscle contraction
    • Contraction mechanism involves actin, myosin, and ATP/ADP (energy)
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    The central myosin bundle consists of about 400 individual myosin molecules arranged in a staggered fashion as pictured
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    Each myosin unit is a double alpha helix terminating in a globular head having ATPase activity
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    Actin is really a double helix of 'F' actin or 'fibrous actin', which is a polymerized form of 'G' or globular actin
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    • Contraction/relaxation
    • Reversible reaction: G acton <-- / --> F actin
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    • Close up of a relaxed sarcomere and it contracted
    • In the presence of ATP - G actin instantly polymerizes into F actin, causing a shortening or contraction in the muscle fiber
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    • Overall complexity of a muscle fiber
    • Contains even more other proteins present in meat tissue systems
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    • Actomyosin complex
    • F-actin (red), tropomyosin (blue), myosin (yellow)
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    • Collagen close up
    • Connective tissue is mainly made up of collagen - found as part of the tendons, within the muscle and a major component of hide and bones (key sources)
    • Has many commercial uses (like for making gelatin)
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    • The fundamental collagen unit is a triple suprahelix, called tropocollagen
    • Made up of three proteins (two similar protein chains and one different held in place by hydrogen bonding)
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    • Overview of tropocollagen in tissues
    • Associates in a staggered fashion in 3 dimensions to form a sheet like material which surrounds the muscle bundles as well as being an integral part of tendons and the matrix in bone tissue
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    • Gelatin desserts
    • Connective proteins have value as gelatin, a useful functional protein in food and medicine
    • Gelatin production is somewhat of an art, and there are numerous processes used, depending on the raw material source
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    • Gelatin desserts
    • Connective proteins have value as gelatin, a useful functional protein in food and medicine
    • Gelatin production is somewhat of an art, and there are numerous processes used, depending on the raw material source
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    • Gelatin capsules
    • Connective proteins have value as gelatin, a useful functional protein in food and medicine
    • Gelatin production is somewhat of an art, and there are numerous processes used, depending on the raw material source
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    • Gelatin powder
    • Made by: Discards of hide, bones and meat placed in water and heated in a retort under pressure
    • Around 80°C the collagen matric begins to disintegrate and solubiliz due to the breaking of intermolecular hydrogen bonds
    • Fat is skimmed, final clarified product is a viscous solution which will gel if allowed to cool
    • This is drum dried and ground to form gelatin powder
    • Gel formation: Powder can be re-solubilized in hot water and will form a gel at low concentrations upon cooling
    • Gelatin is hydrated in the presence of water and high temperatures
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    • Fish proteins are similar to mammalian meat proteins but fish muscle structure is organized quite differently due to its peculiar method of locomotion associated with fish
    • Also has much less connective tissue (require less support in natural environment)
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    • Organization of fish muscle
    • Fish proteins are similar to mammalian meat proteins but fish muscle structure is organized quite differently due to its peculiar method of locomotion associated with fish
    • Also has much less connective tissue (require less support in natural environment)
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    • Surimi
    • Fish muscle protein from under-utilized species is being used extensively in the manufacture of "surimi"
    • Made by: Tissue is first ground and washed with water to remove the water soluble sarcoplasmic proteins while retaining the contractile myofibrillar proteins (actin/myosin)
    • Residual actin/myosin protein paste is then stabilized with a cryogenic stabilizer (commonly a sugar alcohol)
    • Products then formed into crab and scallop analogs to resemble an identifiable product (appropriate flavor is added)
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    • Surimi - made into meat analog
    • Fish muscle protein from under-utilized species is being used extensively in the manufacture of "surimi"
    • Made by: Tissue is first ground and washed with water to remove the water soluble sarcoplasmic proteins while retaining the contractile myofibrillar proteins (actin/myosin)
    • Residual actin/myosin protein paste is then stabilized with a cryogenic stabilizer (commonly a sugar alcohol)
    • Products then formed into crab and scallop analogs to resemble an identifiable product (appropriate flavor is added)

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Morgan.liberatore
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142388
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Foodchem Lecture 13 Pics
Updated:
2012-03-19 17:41:33
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Foodchem Lecture 13 Pics
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Foodchem Lecture 13 Pics
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