Pregnancy & Lactation

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  1. Ectoderm
    • forms nervous system
    • forms epidermis of skin
  2. Endoderm
    • forms mucosa of digestive tract and respiratory systems
    • forms epithelial cells of glands: thyroid, parathyroids, thymus, liver, pancreas
  3. Mesoderm
    forms all other organs and tissues
  4. organogenesis
    is neurulation which produces the brain and spinal cord
  5. Breast milk contains:
    • nutrients: fats, iron, amino acids
    • anti-infection components: IgA antibodies, lysozymes, interferon, interleukins, prostaglandins
    • glycoprotein: that prevents ulcer-causing bacteria
    • natural laxative: for baby
  6. colostrum
    • pre-milk fluid: days 2-3
    • low in fat
    • high in protein
    • high in vitamin A
    • high in minerals
  7. Gastrointestinal tract disease caused by pregnancy
    • constipation
    • GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
    • hemorrhoids
    • nausea & vomiting
  8. Hypertension in pregnancy
    • Gestational hypertension: pregnancy-induced hypertension w/o proteinuria
    • Preeclampsia: hypertension w/ proteinuria
    • where mother can experience a tonic-clonic seizure
    • BP > 140/90
    • proteinuria > 300mg /24 hrs
    • treatment for preeclampsia: delivery of child, restricting activity, bedrest
    • chronic hypertension: HTN prior to pregnancy
  9. Acute care issues for pregnancy
    • urinary tract infection
    • headaches
    • STD: syphilis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, genital herpes, bacterial baginosis
  10. Breast feeding can cause medical conditions
    • Mastitis: infection of one breast causing flu-like symptoms, breast tenderness, redness, warmth
    • Postpartum mood disorders: postpartum blues, postpartum depression, postpartum psychosis
    • Inadequate lactation: when prolactin levels decrease and women stop producing milk
  11. Pharmcokinetic changes in pregnancy
    • Plasma Albumin: decreases
    • Body fat: increases
    • plasma volume, cardiac output, GFR: all increases
    • pH: increases
    • estrogen, progesterone: increases
    • Gravidity (G): # of times woman exp pregnancy
    • (X) following G: reflects # of pregnancy including active pregnancy
    • Parity (P): # of pregnancies exceeding 20wks gestation
    • (T) following P: term deliveries
    • (P): preterm deliveries
    • (A): all other pregnancies (spontaneous, therapeutic abortions, ecotopic)
    • (L): # of living children
  13. corona radiata
    • layers of follicular cells supplying nutrients to oocyte
    • sperm must first pass through corona radiata
  14. zona pellucida
    glycoprotein membrane surrounding plasma membrane
  15. acrosome
    digestive enzymes at the head of sperm that tunnel through the zona pellucida to reach plasma membrane of ovum
  16. Smoking during pregnancy
    • associated w/: preterm birth, low birth weight
    • first-line approach: individual counseling, and behavioral interventions
    • nicotine replacement therapies in combo w/behavioral therapy as alternatives
    • nicotine patches should be placed for 16hrs instead of 24hrs for pregnant women
  17. Folic Acid during pregnancy
    • reduces the incidence of neural tube defects
    • neural tube defects: birth defects of brain and spinal cord
    • low risk women: 400 mcg/day
    • high risk women: 4 mg/day
    • should begin 1 month prior to conception and throughout first trimester
  18. Omega-3 fatty acids during pregnancy
    • help to support development of central nervous system
    • AVOID: mackerel, shark, swordfish, tile fish due to high mercury levels
    • shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, catfish: women consume 12ozs of low mercury seafood
    • albacore tuna limited to 6oz/week
Card Set
Pregnancy & Lactation
Pregnancy & Lactation
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