EE Bio 25 part 2

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Author:
dante01
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142422
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EE Bio 25 part 2
Updated:
2012-03-19 06:10:31
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  1. Most diverse part of the richest part of the ocean
    • Coral reefs
    • -subtidal, tropical
  2. reef building species
    Schleractinian
  3. Coral growth
    • 1. Layers of CaCO3
    • 2. Grow up and outward
    • 3. Columns
  4. Coral shapes
    • 1. Plate-like
    • 2. Foliceous
    • 3. Columnar
    • 4. Massive
    • 5. Branching
    • 6. Encrusting
    • 7. Free-living
  5. Coral Bleaching: Sources of warm water
    • 1. Extreme low tide
    • 2. Power plants
    • 3. El Nino
    • 4. Climate change
  6. Factors influencing reef growth
    • 1. Salinity
    • -sensitive to low salinity
    • 2. Sediment
    • - fine sediments can smother polyps
    • sources: mining, logging
    • 3. Pollution
    • -pesticides, toxic waste
    • -excess nutrients: sewage, fertilizers
    • -CO2, & ocean acidity
  7. Reef Types
    • 1. Fringing
    • - Narrow band near shore
    • -most vulnerable to human impact
    • 2. Barrier
    • -Separated from shore by lagoon
    • 3. Atolls
    • -Ring around island or central lagoon, off-shore
    • 4. Deep-water coral mounds
    • - up to 6,000m
    • -no zooxanthellae
    • -filter feed only
  8. Simplest and most common type of reef
    Fringing reef
  9. Atolls:Formation
    • 1. Volcanic island
    • 2. Fringing reef forms
    • 3. Island slowly sinks
    • 4. Reef expands
    • 5. Lagoon forms
  10. Mutualism: Coral + Zooxanthellae
    • 1. Corals: Protection and nutrients
    • 2. Zooxanthellae: food and assist in building skeleton
  11. External nutrient cycling
    • Fishes + Macroalgae + Coral
    • 1. Fishes consume algae
    • 2. Invertebrates, excrete nutrients as waste
    • 3. Nutrients absorbed by algae/coral
  12. Coral reefs: Other nutrient sources
    • 1. Nitrogen fixation
    • -cyanobacteria
    • 2. Currents
    • - Influx of low concentrations of nutrients
    • 3. Reef visitors
    • - animals feeding elsewhere bring in nutrients as waste
  13. Corals: Other primary producers
    • 1. Turf algae
    • 2. Cyanbacteria
    • 3. Coralline algae
  14. Crown of Thorns Sea Star
    • 1. Everts stomach over large parts of coral colony
    • 2. Digests living tissue
  15. Damselfish gardeners
    • 1. Guard territory
    • 2. Remove undesirable algae
  16. Coral competition
    • 1. Space limitation
    • -Hard substrate
    • -Access to light
  17. Corals: fast growth
    1. Grow up and out shading neighbors
  18. Corals: Slower growth
    • Attack
    • 1. Medenterial filaments: digest away each other's living tissue
    • 2. Sweeper tenatacles: packed with nematocysts
  19. Algae limitations
    Nutrients and grazing
  20. Deep sea:food source
    • Marine snow
    • 1. Organic detritus from above
    • 2. Chemical seeps/vents
  21. Most abundant fish on earth
    • 1. Bristlemouths
    • 2. Lanternfishes
  22. Mesopelagic fishes
    • 1. Small size
    • 2. Generalist feeders
    • - long, sharp teeth
  23. Mesopelagic: Adaptations
    • 1. Large, extremely sensitive eyes
    • 2. Coloration: Camouflage
    • 3. Body shape: Not streamlined, lateral compression
  24. Counterillumination
    Match light produced by photophores to downwelling light
  25. Bioluminscense
    • 1. Communication
    • 2. defense
    • 3. attraction
    • 4. hunting
  26. Mesopelagic vs deep sea
    • 1. Bigger brain
    • 2. Larger gill filaments
  27. Deep Sea: Reproduction
    • 1. Hard to find mate
    • - Bioluminescense
    • - Pheromones
    • 2. Hermaphrotism
    • 3. Parasitic males
  28. Most abundant organism on sea floor
    • Meiofauna
    • -lives in crevices of sand particles
  29. Bottom dwelling fishes
    • 1. Larger size
    • 2. More active and muscular
    • 3. Scavengers
  30. Deep sea scavengers
    • 1. Hagfishes
    • 2. Rattails
    • 3. Sleeper sharks
  31. Evolution of fisheries
    • 1. Simple gear
    • - Harpoons
    • 2. Ships
    • -more space, speed, distance
    • 3.Refrigeration
    • 4. Machines + technology
    • -Larger nets, stronger, heavier
    • -GPS, sonar
  32. Gill nets
    designed to trap bony fish by gills
  33. Purse seine
    • designed to encircle entire schools of fish
    • -Target: tuna
    • - Bycatch: Dolphins, sharks, turtles
  34. Trawls
    Bulldozing a forest to catch a deer
  35. Longlines
    • baited hooks
    • - designed to attract and hook pelagic or benthic species
    • -Target: tuna, halibut
  36. Trolling
    • -Baited hooks are towed behind boat
    • Target: tuna, salmon
    • -less bycatch
  37. Pots & Traps
    • 1. Baited cages/traps
    • 2. Targeted: crabs, lobsters
  38. Artisinal fisheries
    • 1. Local, low-tech gear, small boats
    • 2. Important local food source
  39. Types of pollution
    • 1. Thermal: heat
    • 2. Sound: ships, sonar, drilling
    • 3. chemical: urban, agricultural
    • 4. Physical: marine debris
    • 5. Biological: invasive species

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