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What is the major function of respiration?
To supply the body with oxygen and to remove CO2from the body.
Other than adding O2 and expelling CO2, what are some other functions of respiration?
Thermoregulation - Heat exchange...??? Purpose?
Humidification - water vapor exchange Purpose?
Filtration - mucousal lining of the ciliated pseudostratified epithelium of the airways attracts particulates ( bits of dust and such ) and microorganisms which stick to it. Cilia on these surfaces move debris out of airways and towards esophagus where it is moved into digestive tract and ( if microorganism, bacteria, virus ) killed in stomach acid.
Clara cells in epithelium produce an anti-baterial and antiinflammatory secretions.
What kind of tissue lines the airways?
Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium with goblet cells ( for mucous ). Goblet cells and glands produce sheet of seromucous fluid covering epithelial surface.
Lamina propria lies deep to the epithelium, ( deep to basal lamina? ) Contains seromucous glands and blood vessels.
What are the 4 different pocesses collectively called repiration?
Pulmonary ventilation - Air must be moved in and out of thelungs so that gasses in the alveoli are continuously replaced.
External respiration - Gas exchange must occur between blood and air at alveoli - oxygen in alveoli diffuses into blood and CO2 in blood diffuses into alveoli.
Transport of respiratory gasses - oxygen and CO2 transported be body's cells and lungs, blood transports the gasses.
Internal respiration - gasses exchange between tissue cells and cappilaries.
What is cellular respiration?
When the cells of the body take in oxygen from the blood and expell CO2 into the blood.
What are the organs of the respiratory system?
Nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trache, bronchi, lungs, alveoli.
What are conducting zones?
Passage ways that carry air to sites of gas exchange. The conducting zones also warm and humidify the incoming air so that dust particles are more easily stopped before entering the lungs.
What are respiratory zones?
Areas where gas exchange actually happens. Terminal respiratory passageways - respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs.
- Apex - tip of the nose.
- Bridge - bony, inflexible part of the ridge of the nose.
- Anterior nares - nostrils, entrances to nasal cavity.
- Columna - column between nostrils.
- Philtrum - groove between nose and upper lip.
- Alae - fleshy wings lateral to nostrils, curl back behind nostrils and connect with upper lip.
- Procerus - pulls eyebrows down and medially.
- Nasalis - two parts - larger transverse part compresses nostrils, smaller alar part dilates nostrils.
- Depressor nasi septi - compresses nostrils
- Levator labii superiorus alaque nasi - elevates upper lip and flares ala, dilatin nostrils.
See lab manual for more physical features of nose and nasal cavity.
See lab manual for more physical features of nose and nasal cavity.
Posterior nares ( also called "choanae" )
Anterior nares are the nostrils, the "in" holes. Choanae are the "out" holes of the nasal cavity into the nasopharynx.
The kinds of membrane that line different parts of the nasal cavity...
Vestibule - regular skin + vibrissae ( guard hairs that trap large particulate and prevent it going into nasal cavity ).
Nasal cavity itself - respiratory mucosa ( pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium )
Roof of nasal cavity, superior conchae and adjacent parts of nasal septum - olfactory mucosa. Olfactory mucosa is made of olfactory cells with membrane receptors for various molecules, supporting cells, and olfactory glands.
How smell ( olfaction ) work?
- Molecules in inspired air come into contact with olfactory cell membrane receptors
- causing a nerve impulese in olfactory cell axons
- nerve axons pass through holes in cribriform plate of ethmoid
- then enter olfactory bulbs lying over cribriform plate in cranial cavity
- synapse with nerve cells in olfactory bulbs?
- olfactory bulb nerve cell axons synapse with crebral cortical neurons
- odor is interpreted ( strength, source, etc...
The bundles of olfactory cell axons passing throgh the cribriform plate = cranial nerves 1.
Where do the different paranasal sinuses drain to?
- Frontal sinuses - drain to middle meatus
- Maxillary sinuses - drain to middle meatus
- Anterior and middle ethmoidal air cells - drain to middle meatus
- Posterior ethmoidal air cells - drain to superior meatus
- Sphenoidal sinuses - drain anteriorly to sphenoethmoidal recess
How do sinus infections cause discomfort?
- Nasal infection ( rhinitis ) lead to -
- sinus infection sinitus -
- sinus produces exudate -
- sinus pressure and discomfort -
- sinus tissue becomes inflamed and swells -
- sinuses do not drain - pressure, discomfort
Why can maxillary sinuses be problematic?
Maxillary sinuses lie below the middle meatus that they drain into so they have to kind of drain -up- into the middle meatus against gravity which doesn't always work well.
What are nasolacrimal ducts, how do tears drain from eye?
- Lacrimal gland in anterolateral roof of orbit produces tears which are spread over surface of eye by blinking.
- The tears collect at medial palpebral ( corner of eyelid closest to nose )
- Tears enter upper and lower canaliculi through punctae ( little holes at medial end of each eyelid )
- Tears collect in lacrimal sac in lacrimal fossa of lacrimal bone
- Nasolacrumal duct carries tears through nasolacrimal canal to inferior meatus of nasal cavity
Somewhere in this process a tiny muscle squezes the lacrimal sac which causes it to act like a pump, sucking tears through the canaliculi.
What are some functions the nose performs?
- Provides airway for respiration.
- Moistens and warms incoming air.
- Filters incoming air.
- Resonating chamber for speech.
- Allows you to smell things.
Which bones make up external nose?
Frontal, nasal and maxilary bones.
Which cartialges make up external nose?
- Septal cartilage down the middle of the nose.
- Lateral processes of septal cartilage lateral to that.
- Major alar cartilages anterioinferior to that.
- Minor alar cartilages posteriosuperior to that.
- Ala - lateral border of the nostril - dense fibrous connective tissue.
What is the dorsum nasi?
Anterior margin of the nose - the top, middle part of the cartilagenous portion of the nose.
What are nares?
Divides the nasal cavity into right and left halves. Made up of perpendicular ethmoid plate, vomer, septal cartilage.
Conchae / nasal conchae...
Holes that connect the nasal cavity with the nasal pharynx.
Hard palate, soft palate...
Hard palate is the anterior roof of the mouth that is made of bone.
Soft palate is the posterior roof of the mouth made of muscle tissue.
Space / opening in exterinal nose just inside the nostrils. Lined with hairs called vibrissae that filter out large particles ( and insects ) and sweat glands.
Two kinds of mucous membrane line the nasal cavity...
- Olfactory mucosa lines the nasal cavity near the smell receptors.
- Respiratory lines the rest of the nasal cavity.
Made of Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
Connective tissue that is deep the the basement membrane of the epithelium which makes up the lining of the nasal cavidy. it contains compound tubuloalveolar glands that contain mucous and serous cells that secrete mucous and a watery fluid.
The mucous contains the enzyme lysozyme that digests and destroys bacteria. The mucous is a sticky sheet that covers the nasal mucosa and traps dirt, bacteria, viruses so they do not enter the body proper.
Cilia on the apical surface of the nasal mucosa moves the sheet of mucous ( and dust and bacteria and viruses ) towards the pharynx and down the esophagus into the stomach where stomach acid destroys bacteria and viruses.
Nasal conchae ( not choanae )...
Nasal conchae are downward curving ridges of bone lateral to the perpendicular ethmoid plate which curve toward the ethmoid plate. They are superior, middle, and inferior chochae.
Below each conchae is a groove called a meatus - superior, middle, and inferior nasal meatus. Inhaled air is forced through the meatuses at a greater speed and with greater force than if they weren't there and causes particles in the inhaled air to come into contact with mucous lining the meatuses and trapping them.
Nasal conchae and heat exchange in nasal cavity.
The nasal conchae heats and moistens the air coming in through the nasal cavity, which cools the nasal conchae.
Exhaled warm air help warm the nasal conchae back up and produc precipitation which moistens the mucosal lining.
This process helps prevent the loss of heat through breathing ( heat from exhaled war, air is absorbed by the conchae rather than being lost to exhilation ) and also prevents moisture from being lost during exhilation.
Sinuses in the frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and maxilary bones, kind of encircling the nasal cavity. The paranasal sinuses empty into the nasal cavity.
- Paranasal sinuses are:
- Frontal - above the eyes in the frontal bone.
- Maxillary - in the maxillary bones below the eyes.
- Sphenoid - anterior to ears, posterior to eyes, medial to eyes, same vertical plane as lacrimal ducts, same horizontal plane as eyes.
- Ethmoid - ( ethmoid air cells ) medial to eyes, on about the same horizontal plane as the eyes, extending posteriorly from nasal bone / ethmoid bone.
Connects the nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus. It contains the nasopharynx, orapharynx, and laryngopharynx. It extends from the base of the skull to the 6th c-vert.
Posterior to nasal cavity, inferior to sphenoid bone, superior to level of soft palate.
Soft palate moves superiorly during swallowing so that food does not move into nasal cavity. Continuous with nasal cavity, lined with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium.
At posterior inferior surface of nasopharynx are adenoids called "pharyngeal tonsils", made of lymphatic tissue - it monitors inspired air.
At the lateral walls of nasopharynx are openings of pharyngotympanic tubes which are cartilaginous and bony tubes that connect middle ear to nasopharynx.
Eustachian / pharyngotympanic tubes / auditory tubes...
Are made of cartilage and bone - connect middle ear to nasopharynx.
Estachian tubes equilibrates air pressure on inner side of tympanum ( ear drum ) with air pressure on outer side of tympanum. If there is a difference in air pressure the typanum will be pushed either partially in or out ( as well as feeling uncomfortable ). If it is pushed too far one way it can rupture.
Infections in the nasopharynx ( nasopharyngitis ) can spread to Eustachian tubes ( salpingitis ) and to middle ear ( otitis media ). This occurs more commonly in infants because the tube itself is shorter, less angled, and more open than in adults so things can get through it more easily.
Posterior to oral cavity, extends from soft palate, inferiorly to epiglotis. Continuous with nasopharynx. Lined with stratified squamous epithelium to withstand friction of food passing through.
Lingual tonsils are at the very back of the tongue, where tongue begins to descend into throat.
Palatine tonsils are on the soft palate at the sides and back of the mouth.
Inferior to oropharynx, posterior to larynx, continuous with esophagus and larynx. Lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
Extends from the 4th to 6th c-vert. Attaches to hyoid bone superiorly and is continuous with the trache inferiorly.
Lined with laryngeal mucosa, it also encloses the membranes, ligaments and muscles of the larynx.
Respiratory mucosa ( same as laryngeal mucosa? ) for thermoregulation, humidification, and filtration. Cilia moves debris up and out of airway, directing it to esophagus.
Vocal folds and anterior surface of epiglottis are not covered with respiratory mucosa, they are lined with stratified squamous epithelium.
What are three functions of the larynx?
- Voice box for noise-talk.
- Sends food down esophagus and air down trachea.
Starts at about T4, T5 c-vert., ends where bronchial tubes divide into left and right lungs.
Made of c-rings made of hyaline cartilage connected to each other by fibroelastic connective tissue. C-rings counteract Bernouli effect ( so when you inhale or exhale really fast the trachea doesn't collapse on itself ). The firbroelastic connective tissue allows the trachea to be flexible.
Trachea is lined with respiratory mucosa.
Pleurae and pleural cavities...
Each lung sits in a pleural cavity. Parietal pleura is the outer wall, visceral pleura is the inner wall, pleural cavity is the space between the two.
Both parietal and visceral walls are made of serous membrane composed of mesothelium and connective tissue.
The parietal pleurae are attached to the inside of the rib cage ( costal ) and superior surface of the diaphragm ( diaphragmatic ). It also borders on the mediastinum and cervical vertebrae ( it kind of pokes up through the thoracic inlet ).
The visceral pleurae are made of mesothelium and connective tissue and are in contact with the lungs.
In the pleural cavity is a watery fluid secreted by the pleurae that prefents friction during breathing.
- There are spaces in the pleurae not always filled with lung, they are called pleural recesses.
- Costodiaphragmatic recesses are in each pleurae and are filled by the most inferior part of the lungs on inhalation. On exhalation the lungs recede upward, leaving the costodiaphragmatic recesses empty.
Costomediastinal recess(es)(?) is/are where the mediastinal pleurae meets the costal pleura at the mediastinum.
How lungs are formed embryologically...
The pleurae are kind of like big, empty sacs / balloons. As the lungs develop they push into the medial side of the pleurae and bring with them blood vessels and bronchial tubes and such until they fill the pleurae. The opposing sides of the balloon are then adjacent visceral and parietal pleura.
- Apex - superior part of lung, blunted, not very pointy.
- Base - slightly concave, broad, inferior part of lung.
- Cardiac notch - space / indentation in the lungs occupied by heart.
- Lingula - tongue shaped projection at the anterioinferior portion of the lungs.
- Lobes - R - upper, middle, lower. L - upper, lower
- Fissures - R - Oblique - separates lower lobe from upper lobe and middle lobe
- Horizontal - separates upper and middle lobes
- Lobes - L - Oblique - separates upper and lower lobes.
- Hilum - the entry / exit into the lungs through which blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves and of course airways pass. Connection between mediastinum and lung.
Trachea divides into L and R main / primary bronchi at about T7in living people ( about T4 in cadavers ).
Just before the bronchi enter the lungs they split again into 3 lobar bronchi in the R lung and 2 lobar bronchi in the L lung.
The lobar bronchi then branch into 10 tertiary / segmental bronchi, each of them supplying a bronchopulmonary segments.
This continues through 23 orders of subdivision ultimately ending in terminal bronchioles.
Bronchial tree simplified...
- Main / primary bronchi
- Lobar bronchi ( 3R, 2L )
- Tertiary / segmental bronchi ( 10 from each lobar bronchi ) which each supply a bronchiopulmonary segment
- About 18 more subdivisions
- Terminal bronchioles = end of conduction system.
Changes in the structure of the bronchial tree decending...
Trachea has: C-ring cartilages, trachealis muscle, pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells.
Bronchi ( large air tubes ) have: cartilage plates instead of C-rings, spiral bands of muscle rather than trachealis muscles. ( The spiral bands of muscle allow the bronchi to dilate and constrict to match airflow with blood flow and oxygen need. ) Epithelium - pseudostratified columnar ciliated with goblet cells, then simple columnar ciliated, then simple cuboidal ciliated then simple cuboidal.
Bronchioles ( little tubes ) - no cartilage at all. Thinner spiral bands of muscle. Simple cuboidal epithelium.
Respiratory zone structure...
- Respiratory bronchioles
- Alveolar ducts
- Alveolar sacs
Respiratory bronchioles are tubes with scattered alveoli in their walls.
Alveolar ducts are tubes consisting mostly of alveoli.
Alveolar sacs are clusters of alveoli.
Walls of the alveola are made of alveolar septa ( or interalveolar septa ) which is a fibroelastic connective tissue containing pulmonary capillaries. Adjacent alveoi share septa and are often connected by alveolar pores.
Type 1 simple squamous epithelial cells make up the walls of the alveoli.
Type 2 cells ( septal cells / corner cells ) produce surfactant. The surfactant keeps the inner walls of the alveoli from sticking to itself when it collapses during exhalation. Water molecules inside the alveoli kind of stick to each other, the surfactant keeps this from happening.
Alveolar macrophages also inhabit the alveoli and consume the tiniest of particles that may have managed to make it all the way into the alveoli.
The membrane between alveoli and adjacent capillaries.
- Starting at the inside of the alveoli working towards the capillary...
- Alveolar epithelium
- Basal lamina of alveolar epithelium
- Basal lamina of pulmonary capillary endothelium
- Pulmonary capillary endothelium
Gas exchange through respiratory membrane...
Diffusion of gasses happen in both directions across respiratory membrane. Since the alveoli normally have more oxygen than the neighboring capillaries net flow of oxygen will be from alveoli to capillary. Since the capillaries next to the alveoli are going to have more CO2
than oxygen, the net flow of CO2 ( lazy ) is from the capillary to the alveoli.
So, O2 goes from....
- Inside of alveoli
- Type 1 cell ( simple squamous epithelial )
- Alveoli epithelial basal lamina
- Capillary endothelial basal lamina
- Capillary endothelial cell
- Blood plasma
- Red blood cell
Quiet ( at rest ) inspiration...
- External intercostals contract
- Ribs swing up and out
- Sternum moves upward and forward
- Width and depth of thoracic cavity increase
- Diaphragm moves downward
- Dimensions of thoracic cavity increase
Parietal pleurae are attached to the diaphragm inferiorly and the rib-cage as well so on inhilation...
- The space around the lungs ( pleural cavity ) increases in size
- The pressure on the outside of the lungs is less than the pressure inside of the lungs
- Lungs expand and fill with air, alveoli in lungs fill with air, too.
Quiet ( at rest ) expiration...
Opposite of inspiration
Thoracic cavity gets smaller, pressure outside of lungs is greater than pressure inside lungs, air escapes lungs.