Biology3 Lab5

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kjel
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142445
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Biology3 Lab5
Updated:
2012-03-21 12:44:20
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Biology3 Lab5
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Biology3 Lab5
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  1. two types of bacteria:
    • aerobic: require oxygen
    • anaerobin: can survive in oxygen-free environments
  2. bacterial shapes:
    • coccus: (plural - cocci) -- OOOO
    • bacillus: (plural - bacilli) -- ==== ==== ====
    • spiral: -- ~~~~~~~~~~~~
  3. four bacterial diseases:
    • bacterial pneumonia
    • tuberculosis
    • strep throat
    • salmonella
  4. pathogen
    a disease causing organism [G: "to give birth to" "suffering"]
  5. normal flora or microbiota
    assemblage of microorganisms that reside on the surface and in deep layers of skin, in the saliva and oral mucosa, and in the gastrointestinal tracts.
  6. antibiotic
    "against life"; a chemical used to kill living cells, generally bacteria
  7. virus
    Non-living infectious agent. They cannot use energy or reproduce on their own, they must invade living cells.
  8. three viral diseases:
    • HIV
    • measles
    • herpes
  9. viral life cycle:
    • virus attaches to the host cell
    • the protein coat stays on the outside and the viral genes are inserted into the host
    • the host cell follows the new genetic instructions and begins to produce more viruses
  10. "envelope" virus
    a virus that grabs a peice of the host cell's membrane to act as a "cloak"
  11. two examples of enveloped viruses:
    • HIV
    • influenza
  12. blood components and their properties and role in the body:
    • plasma: acts as a fluid medium allowing blood cells to flow efficiently around the body
    • platelets: spikey particles that help clot blood
    • red blood cells: carry oxygen to the tissues and carry CO2 away, using hemoglobin
    • white blood cells: important component of the immune system
  13. phagocytosis
    the process of engulfing other cells
  14. antigen
    • identifying proteins on the outside of cells or viruses
    • any protein that causes an immune response
  15. antibody
    a plasma protein produced by the white blood cells when foreign proteins are encountered
  16. vaccine
    • stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies to that protein, as if you had been exposed to the actual invader
    • contains one or more antigens from an infective agent
  17. free radical
    molecules or ions with unpaired electrons
  18. what cellular damage do free radicals cause?
    • they damage the molecules around them when they attempt to fill their outside shell.
    • cell membranes and DNA are often damaged

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