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What constitutes a person's personality?
An individual's unique constellation of durable dispositions and consisten ways of behaving.
What is behavior also known as?
Define trait perspective.
The prdispositions that underlie our actions.
Why are traits not good predictors of behavior?
They can vary relative to particular environments.
What did Hans and Sybil Eyesenck suggest?
Personality could be reduced downt to two polar dimensions, extraversion-introversion and emotional stability-instability.
Define personality inventories.
Questionnaries designed to gauge a wde range of feelings and behaviors assessing several traits at once.
What type(s) of questions are used on personality inventories?
True-false or agree-disagree questions
Define Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMMPI)
The most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders.
What do trait reserarchers believe today regarding earlier trait dimensions?
They failed to tell the whole story.
List the five factors of traits.
A line between two endpoints that are often used for creating a personality profile for a person.
List the endpoints of the Conscientiousness dimension.
- Organized <--> Disorganized
- Careful <--> Careless
- Disciplined <--> Impulsive
List the endpoints of the Agreeableness dimension.
- Soft-hearted <--> Ruthless
- Trusting <--> Suspicious
- Helpful <--> Uncooperative
List the endpoints of the Neuroticism dimension.
- Calm <--> Anxious
- Secure <--> Insecure
- Self-Satisfied <--> Self-pitying
List the endpoints of the Openness dimension.
- Imaginative <--> Practical
- Prefence for Variety <--> Preference for Routine
- Independent <--> Conforming
List the endpoints of the Extraversion dimension.
- Sociable <--> Retiring
- Fun-Loving <--> Sober
- Affectionate <--> Reserved
Are the five factors of traits stable?
Quite stable in adulthood. However, they change over development.
Are the five factors of traits heretiable?
Fifty percent or so for each trait.
Are the five factors of traits in other cultures?
These traits are common across cultures.
Identify Albert Bandura.
Believed that personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and their social context.
List the three specific ways in which individuals and environments interact.
- Different people chose different environments.
- Our personalities shape how we react to events.
- Our personalities shape situations.
Define personal control.
Whether we control the environment or the environment controls us.
Define External Locus of Control.
The perception that chance or outside forces beyond out personal control determine our fate.
Define Internal Locus of Control.
The perception that we can control our own fate.
How does an animal or human learn helplessness?
When uncontrolled bad events lead to perceived lack of control lead to generalized helpless behavior.
Define Positive Psychology.
An attempt to foster human fulfillment.
What does positive psychology seek?
Positive subjective well-being, positive character, and positive social groups.
What does positive psychology focus on?
Positive emotions, positive character traits, and institutions that faciliate positive emotions.