bio ch 39 senses

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Siobhan
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bio ch 39 senses
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2012-03-20 23:22:40
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bio ch 39 senses
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  1. Mechanoreceptors
    • Receptors in the skin that respond to touch, vibration, or pressure
    • Stretch receptors in many internal organs
    • Position receptors in the joints
    • Receptors in the inner ear that allow us to detect sound

  2. How to catch a fly?
    • Mechanoreceptors are important to all animals
    • Spiders: detect vibrations of their webs
    • Cockroaches: detect tiny puffs of air that move ahead of predators, and run off in the opposite direction
    • Fish: lateral lines detect movement and vibration

  3. How Does the Ear Detect Sound?
    • The ear: sound waves into electrical signals
    • outer ear: pinna and the auditory canal
    • middle ear: tympanic membrane, or eardrum; three tiny bones
    • hammer (malleus)
    • anvil (incus)
    • stirrup (stapes);
    • and the auditory tube (Eustacian tube)
    • Inner ear: cochlea



  4. outer ear
    • pinna and the auditory canal
  5. middle ear:
    • tympanic membrane, or eardrum; three tiny bones
    • hammer (malleus)
    • anvil (incus)
    • stirrup (stapes);
    • and the auditory tube (Eustacian tube)
  6. Inner ear:
    cochlea

  7. The ear: sound waves into electrical signals
    • outer ear: pinna and the auditory canal
    • middle ear: tympanic membrane, or eardrum; three tiny bones
    • hammer (malleus)
    • anvil (incus)
    • stirrup (stapes);
    • and the auditory tube (Eustacian tube)
    • Inner ear: cochlea

  8. Vibrations are converted into electrical signals in the cochlea


    • oval window passes vibrations from the bones of the middle ear to the fluid in the cochlea
    • consists of three fluid-filled compartments
    • hair cells sit on top of basilar membrane
    • movement bends the hairs of the hair cells,
    • receptor potentials that induce the hair cells to release neurotransmitters onto neurons whose axons form the auditory nerve
    • The auditory nerve axons produce action potentials that travel to the auditory centers of the brain

  9. vestibular apparatus
    • The vestibular apparatus detects gravity and movement
    • hair cells in a gelatinous matrix containing tiny stones of calcium carbonate
    • gravity pulls the stones downward, causing the hairs to bend, depending on the tilt of the head
    • the bending hair cells release neurotransmitter triggering action potentials that travel to balance and equilibrium centers in the brain


  10. The mammalian eye collects and focuses light, converting it into electrical signals
    • structures that hold the eye in a fairly fixed shape, control the amount of light that enters, and focus the light rays
    • Cornea, aqueous humor, Iris,Pupil, Lens, Vitreous Humor, Choroid, Sclera
    • 2) The retina: photoreceptors
    • fovea
  11. rods and cones
    • rods and cones because of their shapes, gather light at the rear of the retina (Each kind of photopigment is most strongly stimulated by a particular light wavelength corresponding to red, green, and blue )

  12. The retina detects light and produces action potentials in the optic nerve
    • Rods and cones because of their shapes, gather light at the rear of the retina (Each kind of photopigment is most strongly stimulated by a particular light wavelength corresponding to red, green, and blue )
    • Receptors absorb light by photopigment molecules
    • neurons process the signals from the photoreceptors
    • These neurons enhance our ability to detect edges, movement, and changes in light intensity
    • The retinal layer nearest the vitreous humor consists of ganglion cells, whose axons make up the optic nerve
    • ganglion cell axons pass through the retina at a location called the blind spot; it lacks receptors, so objects focused there cannot be seen
  13. Chemoreceptors
    allow animals to find food, avoid poisonous materials, locate homes, find mates, and maintain homeostasis
  14. Olfaction
    • the sense of smell
    • Olfactory receptor neurons bear long dendrites that protrude into the nasal cavity and are embedded in the mucus
    • Odorous molecules in the air diffuse into the mucus layer and bind to receptor proteins on the dendrites; their axons extend directly to the olfactory bulb in the brain
  15. Gustation
    • the sense of taste

  16. We perceive a great variety of tastes through two mechanisms:
    • a particular substance may stimulate two or more receptor types to different degrees, making the substance taste sweet and sour


    • 2) a substance being tasted usually releases molecules into the air inside the mouth, and these molecules diffuse to the olfactory receptors, which contribute an odor component to the basic flavor
  17. pain receptors
    • Pain is a subjective feeling arising in the brain produced by the stimulation of pain receptors
    • pain receptors are free nerve endings that occur in most parts of the body
    • thermal nociceptors respond to high and low skin temperatures;
    • mechanoreceptors that respond to excessive stretching

  18. thermal nociceptors
    respond to high and low skin temperatures
  19. mechanoreceptors
    • hair cells located in the inner ear. free nerve endings and endings surrounded by accessory structures.

    stimulated by vibration,pressure, touch
  20. vertebrate receptors
    • thermoreceptor= skin, feel hot/cold
    • Mechanoreceptor- hair cells in inner ear, vibration motion gravity

    • Photoreceptors- rods, cones. light
    • Chemoreceptors- olfactory/taste receptor,
    • Pain receptor

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