Used to vary texture- thickening agent for soups and graves
Can be used to form gels/curd- tofu
Can be used as a whipping agent- dream whip
Can be used as a binder in meat loaves sausages etc
Can be 'texturized'- bacon bits, artificial bacon strips, texturized vegetable protein (TVP)
Can be partly hydrolyzed to allow its use closer to its isoelectric point, hence prevent precipitation and loss of functionality in th pH 3-5 range
Why has soy protein replaced conventional protein sources?
How did whey protein concentrates become an important product?
Whey protein concentrates came next in response to environmental problems caused by diposal of whey from cheese manufacture
What is single cell protein?
Covers most microbial sources of protein, including bacteria, yeasts and molds
What is the major problem with all microbial sources?
Their relatively high nucleic acid content, which cannot be handled by the livers of monogastric organisms in excessive amounts
What happens if yeast is consumed on a substantive scale?
Can lead to liver damage and gout
What are some issues of bacteria as a microbial protein?
Beyond nucleic acid tissue- other issues include toxicological and potential pathogenicity of microorganisms
Algae used as a microbial protein
Algae have recieved a lot of attention from the space program where its photosynthetic ability could be capitalized upon ingestion of more than 100g per day leads to nausea, cvomiting and abdominal pains- it is sold as a health supplement
What is marmite made from?
What is quorn?
A very successful texturized product, developed using mushroom mycelium
What is pea starch used for?
Pea starch is used extensively for oil drilling (drilling mud)- a byproduct is pea protein
What is produced by pin milling peas?
Pea starch and a pea protein rich fracvtion can be produced by pin milling peas
What is air classification used for?
Air classification is used to separate the heavier starch from the lighter protein fraction
What are pea concentrates and isolates used for?
Pea concentrates and isolates have been used successfully in hamburger, bread and sausage formulations and incorporated into high protein extruded snacks
What is the main problem of bean protein concentrates?
The major problem with bean protein concentrates, like soy, is that if used in too high a concentration flatulence will be a problem
What are the main problems with leaf protein?
The main problems are stabiliy, yield and palatability
What happens to the rest of fish protein that is not consumed?
Often ends up as animal feed or fertilized in the form of fish meal
How is fish protein concentrate produced?
Involves the mincing of fish, followed by extraction of the fat using isopropyl alcohol
The protein rich residue was the steam stripped to remove the solvent and fishy ocor/flavor and then ground into a powder
The resulting isolate is nutritionally comparable to egg albumin, but lacking in any functional properties
Why was fish protein concentrate a failure?
Nutritionally, as a direct rptoein supplement, it works very well, being of high quality. However, because of lack of functionality there is no practical means of inforporatin it into food products
What is surimi?
Surimi reers to a process of mincing, steaming and shaping of fish tissue
Technically it is the production of a myosin/actomyosin paste, minus the sarcoplasmic protiens, which have been extracted