A&P I

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Author:
mattnjaneal
ID:
142609
Filename:
A&P I
Updated:
2012-03-21 15:10:35
Tags:
exam II
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Description:
circulatory and veins
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  1. hemolytic disease of the newborn
    • when mother is RH- & fetus is RH+
    • Rhogam - RH agglutinin
  2. blood transfusion reaction
    • agglutination of blood cells occurs
    • renal failure
  3. RH
    • D antigen
    • discovered in Rhesus monkeys
    • +means D antigen present
    • - means D antigen absent
  4. agglutination
    clumping
  5. platelets
    • thrombocytes
    • not true cells
    • fragments of larger cells called megakaryocytes - rupture & the little pieces are thrombocytes
    • used for blood clotting
    • if not used last 10 days
  6. What happens when WBCs are presented with a pathogen?
    WBCs begin to reproduce at a rate 2 1/2 x faster than normal - they are building an army to fight a pathogen
  7. diapedesis
    WBCs ability to leave the bloodstream
  8. agranulocytes
    • lymphocytes
    • manocytes
  9. granulocytes
    • neutrophils
    • eosinophils
    • basophils
  10. 2 types of leukocytes
    • granulocytes
    • agranulocytes
  11. leukocytes
    • WBCs are true cells - have a nucleus & organelles
    • defend the body against incoming pathogens
  12. what does polycythemia cause?
    increased viscosity of the blood & increased oxygen carrying capacity can also cause increased blood pressure
  13. polycythemia
    increase in RBCs #s
  14. change in blood when anemic
    • irregular or low levels of hemoglobin
    • low levels of RBCs
  15. anemia
    a decreased oxygen carrying capacity of blood
  16. plasma - fluid portion
    • 92% water
    • 8% proteins & dissolved substances
  17. physical characteristics of blood
    • sticky opaque fluid
    • metallic taste (because of metal ions)
    • 8% of total body weight
    • more dense than water
    • 5x more viscous (thick) than water
    • pH 7.35-7.45 (slightly basic)
    • ~5L per person
    • color ranges from scarlet red (high O2) to dark red (low O2) depending on O2 content
    • temp is slightly higher than body temp 100.4'F
  18. ratio of red to white blood cells
    1000 RBC for every 1 WBC
  19. whole blood
    • formed elements
    • erythrocytes (RBCs) 45%
    • leukocytes (WBCs) <1%
    • thrombocytes (platelets) <1%
    • fluid portion
    • plasma 55%
  20. what is blood?
    connective tissue
  21. what does blood regulate?
    pH & water balance
  22. the bloods defense
    white blood cells
  23. what does blood transport?
    • O2
    • CO2
    • nutrients
    • wastes
    • proteins
    • hormones
    • electrolytes
    • heat
  24. general functions of blood
    • transport
    • defense
    • regulation
  25. hemoglobin
    • attached to RBCs
    • pigment/protein that binds to oxygen
    • causes color change in blood
  26. bi concave discs
    this shape allows them (RBCs) to carry oxygen efficiently & to move through even the smallest capillaries easily
  27. life cycle of erythrocyte
    • lives 120 days
    • when they die they're broken down by the liver & spleen & products are recycled
    • new ones are constantly reproduced in the red bone marrow & pushed into circulation to replace the worn out ones
  28. erythrocytes
    • RBC
    • transports oxygen
    • in maturity has no nucleus (not true cells, no organelles)
    • can't divide
    • live ~ 120 days
    • can't leave the bloodstream
  29. arteries
    • carry blood away from the heart
    • have thicker walls than veins because they must withstand higher blood pressure
    • usually carry oxygenated blood
  30. veins
    • carry blood to the heart
    • have thinner walls than arteries
    • blood pressure is lower in them
    • they have valves that keep the blood flowing in one direction
    • usually carry deoxygenated blood
  31. capillaries
    • smallest vessels in the body
    • walls are 1 cell layer thick
    • walls have pores so things can move in & out
    • found in the 'beds' between arteries & veins
    • each person has 50,000 miles in their body
    • exchange of nutrients, wastes, gases, hormones between blood & tissues at this level
  32. how does the heart beat?
    • both atria contract together
    • push blood into ventricles
    • both ventricles contract together
  33. lub
    blood flows through the tricuspid and the bicuspid is closing
  34. dup
    R & L semilunar valves close
  35. EKG
    • electrocariogram
    • graphical representation of the elctrical activity of the heart
  36. sinus rhythm
    • shows the events of one complete heart beat
    • both atria contract & relax
    • both ventricles contract & relax
  37. deflection waves
    • P wave
    • QRS complex
    • T wave
  38. P wave
    atrial contraction
  39. QRS complex
    • ventricles contraction
    • atrial relax (hidden)
  40. t wave
    ventricles relax
  41. hepatic portal circulation
    • in the liver
    • filtering system
    • all of the blood from the digestive organs (with possible toxins) makes a pit stop in the liver where it gets filtered before returning to the heart.
  42. 2 structures in the fetal heart that allow for bypass of the pulmonary circuit
    • foramen ovale
    • ductus arteriosus
  43. foramen ovale
    • in the interatrial septum oxygenated blood from R atrium goes over to the L side
    • this structure closes and becomes the fossa ovalis
  44. ductus arteriosus
    • a duct that connects pulmonary artery & aorta
    • after birth this structure closes and is called the ligamentum arteriosum
  45. pulmonary circuit
    blood travels from heart to lungs and back to heart
  46. systemic circuit
    blood travels from heart to body & back to the heart
  47. pulmonary circuit and the fetus
    • not needed in a fetus
    • they are collapsed
    • the placenta exchanges O2 & CO2
    • when baby takes first breath the lungs inflate
    • pressure changes in heart & fetal heart structures close

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