Praxis II Study Guide 1

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  1. Physical map
    contains labels for countries and capital cities, as well as major physical features like plains, rivers,
  2. Topographical map
    the shape of the earth's surface is shown by contour lines
  3. Political map
    identifies continents and countries according to their political ideals.
  4. Weather map
    depicts the meteorological conditions over a specific geographic area at a specific time.
  5. Aerial photograph
    a photograph of an area on earth taken from an aircraft flying overhead.
  6. Satellite image
    image of a larger region on earth taken by a satellite orbiting in space.
  7. Mercator map projection
    accurately shows shape and direction, but distorts distance and size of land masses.
  8. Equal-area map
    shows correct size of land masses, but usually distorts their shapes.
  9. Robinson map
    a useful overall picture of the world
  10. Azimuthal map
    true compass direction, usually circular, distorts scale, area and shape
  11. Longitude
    a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance east or west of the prime meridian. The prime
  12. Latitude
    a measurement, in degrees, of a location's distance north or south of the equator. The equator is an
  13. The International Dateline
    an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole between Russia and
  14. Continents
    are great divisions of land on the globe
  15. Oceans
    are the largest bodies of salt water between the continents
  16. Seas
    are large bodies of salt water
  17. Rivers
    are large, natural streams of fresh water.
  18. Bays
    bodies of water, smaller than a gulf and nearly surrounded by land.
  19. Mountain ranges
    rows or chains of mountains. For example, the Himalayan mountain range, along India's northern
  20. Plateau
    a large, flat area that rises above the surrounding land
  21. Valley
    an elongated depression in the earth's surface, usually between ranges of hills or mountains.
  22. Plains
    an extensive area of level and rolling, treeless country, often covered by rich, fertile soil.
  23. Ice cap
    a region which is covered by perennial ice and snow
  24. Tundra
    a level and rolling treeless plain in artic and sub-artic regions with black mucky soil with permanently
  25. Forest
    - a large, thick growth of trees and underbrush.
  26. Grassland
    a large area of land covered with grasses.
  27. Desert
    a large, dry, barren region.
  28. Island
    an area of land which is completely surrounded by water.
  29. 7 continents
    Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America. The largest is Asia.
  30. 5 Oceans
    Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Artic and Antarctic (Southern). The largest is the Pacific.
  31. Major Seas
    Mediterranean, Sea of Japan, Arabian, Black, Red, East China, South China, Caribbean, Bering, Gulf of
  32. Major Rivers
    Africa: Nile (world's longest), Congo (5th longest), Niger (largest delta in Africa), Zambezi (famous for the Victoria
  33. Major Mountain ranges
    Asia: Himalaya - largest mountain range on earth, Mt. Everest is its highest peak (29,035 feet), Karakoram and
  34. Arab world
    name originally applied to the Semitic peoples of the Arabian Peninsula
  35. Africa
    - with 56 countries, the second-largest continent (after Asia), located south of Europe and bordered to the
  36. North Africa
    The Islamic states of North Africa became free during the 1950's and the 1960's.
  37. Sub-Saharan Africa
    consists of the African countries located south of the Sahara desert.
  38. Apartheid
    extreme racial segregation was practiced by the white minority who controlled the government.
  39. Latin America
    Spanish or Portuguese-speaking nations south of the U.S.
  40. The Caribbean
    he Caribbean Sea is in the Atlantic Ocean, bordered by the West Indies to the north and east, South
  41. North America
    third largest continent, comprising Mexico, the United States, Canada and Central America:
  42. Mexico
    Mexico's northern border is the United States, to the west, the Pacific Ocean and to the east, the Gulf of
  43. United States
    a Constitution-based Federal Republic with a strong democratic tradition.
  44. Central America
    the southern most part of the North American continent, lying between Mexico and South
  45. Western Europe
    Western European democratic governments: Britain, Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium,
  46. Eastern Europe
    the former Eastern Bloc, or Communist Europe.
  47. East Asia
    countries include: Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, North Korea, China, and Mongolia.
  48. Japan
    after WWII, Japan became a powerhouse unexpectedly.
  49. Taiwan and South Korea - both have developed prosperous and free societies.
    Both these societies were anticommunist and had a parliament, however the government was run by one dominant
  50. North Korea
    After WWII, the Soviets and Americans divided Korea into North Korea and South Korea.
  51. China
    The people's republic of China is the largest communist population in the world.
  52. South Central Asia
    - countries include: Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Sri Lanka, Iran, Bangladesh, Kyrgystan, Pakistan,
  53. Pakistan
    has become a modern Islamic republic and a major regional power, having nuclear bomb capabilities. It is
  54. Afghanistan
    was an Islamic oligarchy, but had its first democratic elections in 2004, after the defeat of the Taliban
  55. Uzbekistan
    has a republic, authoritarian presidential rule.
  56. Kazakhstan
    has a republic authoritarian presidential rule.
  57. Sri Lanka
    is a republic.
  58. Iran
    has an Islamic theocratic republic.
  59. Bangladesh
    has a parliamentary democracy.
  60. India
    has become the world's largest democracy and also a nuclear power.
  61. Southeast Asia
    a geographical subdivision of Asia which includes the following nations: Burma, Cambodia,
  62. Oceania
    the islands of the southern, western and central Pacific Ocean, including Melanesia, Micronesia and
  63. Australia
    a democratic, federal state system recognizing the British monarch as sovereign.
  64. Seasons:
    because the Earth is closer to the Sun during parts of its elliptical orbit than at other times, and due to the
  65. Summer Solstice
    occurs in the Northern Hemisphere on June 21 or 22. One of the Earth's poles is tilted directly
  66. Fall Equinox
    in the Northern Hemisphere this occurs on September 22 or 23
  67. Winter Solstice
    In the Northern Hemisphere it is on December 21 or 22
  68. Spring Equinox
    the Earth's tilt is sideways toward the Sun and the hours of daylight are the same in both
  69. Climate
    is a region's usual long-term weather patterns. Average temperatures, amounts and kinds of precipitation,
  70. Weather
    the short-term state of the atmosphere at any particular time and place. Weather involves temperature, air
  71. Floods
    water overflows its natural or artificial banks into normally dry land. Floods are commonly caused by
  72. Droughts
    periods of time when less rain than normal falls in an area. During droughts, crops fail and dried out soil
  73. Snowstorms
    have a significant effect on plant, animal and human life. Snow increases the reflection of solar
  74. Earthquakes
    tremors of the Earth's surface, sometimes violent and devastating, which result from shock waves
  75. Plate Tectonics
    heory which explains the distribution of continents, earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains. Plates
  76. Earthquakes create mountain ranges:
    Mountain ranges are thought to form from tectonic plates colliding together and pushing the surface of the Earth
  77. Grand Canyon:
    The Grand Canyon is a 5,000 foot deep gorge which was carved into the Earth's surface by the Colorado River, in
  78. Yosemite Valley:
    Located in California, Yosemite is famous for dramatic rock formations and water falls. Yosemite valley was created
  79. Dispersed settlements
    occur in rural areas
  80. Linear settlements
    tend to follow roads and river valleys which allows easy communication, and flat lands which
  81. Nucleated settlements
    generally found located around ports, harbors and roads
  82. NATO
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization - an international organization, formed in 1949, which includes the
  83. Organization of African Unity
    The Organization of African Unity was established in 1963. Originally 32
  84. OPEC
    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries - an organization of about a dozen nations that sell oil to
  85. Developing nations:
    A nation in which the average income is much lower than in industrialized/developed nations,
  86. Trade relationships:
    Canada - largest trading partner with the United States. 20% of all U.S. international trade.
  87. Construction of houses, roads, and cities
    In the U.S., about a million acres of farmland (an area half the size of
  88. Human-initiated fire
    human-initiated fires for land clearing and land use can quickly develop into large-scale and
  89. Water and air pollution:
    Most water pollution is the result of human activities
  90. Waste disposal
    There are three methods of handling solid waste: burying, recycling, and burning.
  91. Radioactive materials' effects on the environment:
    In 1986, an explosion in a nuclear power station in Chernobyl, Ukraine, was the worst nuclear accident ever. Large
  92. Desertification
    the transformation of arable, or habitable, land into desert, as by a change in climate, or by
  93. Logging
    there are two methods of logging: clear-cutting and selective cutting.
  94. Erosion
    the process by which weathered particles are moved to another location.
  95. Deforestation
    the process of destroying a forest and replacing it with something else.
  96. Global warming
    the term attached to the belief that the Earth's temperature is gradually increasing due to the
  97. Ozone-layer depletion
    the ozone "hole" is a periodic depletion of the ozone layer that occurs over Antarctica in the
  98. Natural resources:
    A natural resource is anything in the environment that is used by people.
  99. Renewable resource
    any resource, such as wood, wind, water or solar energy, that can or will be replenished
  100. Nonrenewable resource
    natural resources that are not replaced in a useful time frame. As nonrenewable resources
  101. Ecosystems
    An ecosystem is a collection of living things and the environment in which they live.
  102. Industrial Revolution:
    the Industrial revolution was a rapid industrial growth that began in
  103. Conflicts in the Middle East:
    The Middle East is the region in western Asia and northeast Africa that
  104. Korea in the 1940's and 1950's and Vietnam in the 1960's and 1970's:
    Looking at a map of North Korea and North Vietnam, you will notice that they are both right next to communist
  105. Native Americans removed from their land to fulfill the Manifest Destiny:
    In the 1800's, the newly built railroad trains brought merchants, miners, ranchers, and farmers from the settled East
  106. Prehistory
    is the period of time before people began writing.
  107. History beginning
    The beginning of history can be traced back before the first human beings appeared about 3 billion years ago.
  108. Paleolithic
    the name given to the Old Stone Age and the time period where most of human pre-history took place.
  109. Cro-Magnons
    similar bone structure to us today. Probably our direct ancestors.
  110. Neanderthals
    In Europe, another human species lived and adapted to life in the cold climates of the last Ice Age.
  111. Homo sapiens"
    (wise man), became dominant. They made tools from stone and
  112. Neolithic
    the period of time about 10,000 B.C., also called the New Stone Age.
  113. Mesopotamia
    means between two rivers: Tigris and Euphrates. These rivers meet in southern Iraq.
  114. Invention of writing:
    Western writing first developed here in 3500 B.C. Writing was done with sticks on clay
  115. Code of Hammurabi
    a king in ancient Mesopotamia who was known for putting 282 laws of his country into a
  116. City-states
    3000 B.C. First city-states - each city acted as a state with its own special gods or goddesses, its own
  117. Military expertise:
    soldiers fought mainly on foot, some rode in chariots drawn by wild donkeys.
  118. Architectural monuments
    Sumerians built temples to worship the gods. Slaves taken captive in war were
  119. Technological capabilities
    - brick makers fired bricks in kilns to produce building materials for structures that were
  120. Alexander the Great:
    King of Macedonia,Alexander the Great joined to help defeat the Persians that Athens and Sparta had been fighting together 490 - 479.
  121. Athens
    rich and cultured, astronomers, mathematics, thinkers, writers, artists, society with slaves.
  122. Sparta
    Best Army, economy based on slave workers, no democracy, sports encouraged for both boys and girls, boys
  123. Rome
    Rome rose to power thanks to its fertile farmland, its army (best in Europe) and its key position in the
  124. Roman Mythology
    The Romans believed in many of the Gods the Greeks did but gave them Latin names.
  125. The Roman Empire:
    At its peak, the Roman Empire stretched from Britain in the west to Mesopotamia in the east. At its largest,
  126. The decline and fall of the Roman empire
    In the end, not even the Roman army could control such a huge empire. The
  127. Islam
    means peace and submission. There is one God, Allah, and Mohammad is his prophet. People called
  128. Judaism
    The first monotheistic (one-God) religion. Jews believe that Moses' prophecies are true and the Messiah
  129. Christianity
    - Christians believe that there is one God and Jesus Christ was his son, a prophet. Jesus is called Christ
  130. Hinduism
    ancient India's first great religion. No unified systems of beliefs or ideas. There's only one supreme God
  131. India
    republic in southeast Asia, capital is New Delhi.
  132. Caste system
    a division in society into groups of higher power and lower power socially.
  133. Hinduism
    religion of India that emphasizes freedom from the material world thru
  134. Buddhism
    A religion, founded by Buddha, that believes that the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping
  135. Confucianism
    500 BC, a scholar named Confucius taught a system of "right behavior" which has influenced
  136. Taoism
    a religion native to China, its adherents attempt to live according to the Tao - the "way" which
  137. Feudalism
    In theory, the emperor owned all the land and gave portions of the land to his leading nobles in
  138. Shintoism
    Shinto means the way of the gods and was the traditional religion of Japan.
  139. Buddhism
    the answer to human suffering lay not in worshipping gods, but in right thinking and selfdenial.
  140. Shoguns
    For 700 years, Japan was under the rule of the Japanese military leaders known as shoguns.
  141. Emperors
    he male ruler of the Japanese empire.
  142. Samurai
    Japanese soldiers who served the land owned by the lords (daimyos).
  143. Sub-Saharan Africa
    Africa south of the Sarah desert, the countries not part of North Africa. Also known as Black
  144. Mayans
    Central America, biggest cities were in modern day Guatemala (south of Mexico), most powerful from
  145. Aztecs
    North America / Mexico. 1300 - 1520 They had two main cities, Tenochtitlan (Mexico city today) and Tlatelco. These two cities had a population of half
  146. Incas
  147. Feudalism
    was the way of life that governed Medieval Europe for hundreds of years during the 9th century.
  148. The Black Death:
    1331 - 1430 A popular name for the bubonic plague and one of the greatest medical disasters in
  149. Gunpowder weapons
    allowed European sailors to carry muskets, pistols, and small artillery pieces that they could
  150. Marco Polo
    was born in Venice, Italy. He was a Venetian merchant and adventurer who
  151. Magellan
    sailed around the world in 1519 - 1522, sailed around the tip of South America,
  152. Christopher Columbus
    Columbus proposed to the Spanish government, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, to
  153. Vasco da Gama
    the first European to reach India by sea sailing around the tip of Africa.
  154. Renaissance
    Renaissance means "rebirth" or "reawakening",in the early 1300's, a cultural and intellectual revival began in parts of southern Europe, especially
  155. Leonardo da Vinci
    1452 - 1446, was a great Renaissance painter (the Mona Lisa) and an engineer (tried to make
  156. Michelangelo
    472 - 1564, was an Italian Renaissance sculptor, painter, architect, and poet who influenced
  157. Renaissance man
    outstandingly versatile, well-rounded person.
  158. Slave trade abolished
  159. Eli Whitney,
    an American inventor, pioneered interchangeable parts.
  160. James Watt,
    a Scottish mechanic, developed the first cost-effective steam engine that changed the textile and coal mining
  161. French Revolution:
    1789 - 1799The French helped America with the American Revolution causing them to go bankrupt.
  162. Thomas Jefferson
    American political philosopher, expressed negative opinions about African Americans and
  163. Rousseau
    an 18 century French philosopher who believed that in the state of nature, people are good but that they
  164. John Locke
    a 17 century philosopher who argued that the government should depend on the consent of the
  165. Enlightenment
    an intellectual movement of the 17 and 18 centuries marked by a celebration of the
  166. Industrial Revolution
    During the end of the 1700's and first half of the 1800's, mass production of goods, goods made using machine
  167. Eli Whitney,
    an American inventor, pioneered interchangeable parts and invented the cotton gin to clean raw
  168. Imperialism
    when a country extends its power and dominion, especially by direct territorial acquisition or by
  169. First World War
    1914-1918 In the late 19 century, rivalry between different nations in Europe increased. They competed with each other for
  170. Russian Revolution
    During World War I, Russia was allied with France and Britain. The Russian armies suffered defeats on the
  171. Mexican Revolution
    1810 to 1823.They fought for independence from Spain and for social justice
  172. Worldwide economic depression in the 1930's
    The end of WWI in 1918 left devastation across large areas of Europe and many countries were in economic chaosWhen the prices fell in October of 1929, people rushed to sell their stocks, but prices fell even further.
  173. Adolph Hitler
    rose to power in the 1930's promising the suffering German people to make their
  174. Rise of communism
    In 1920 there were 23 governments in Europe that could be considered democratic and by 1939, right before WWII,
  175. Vladimir Lenin
    In the fall of 1917, Lenin and Trotsky overthrew the provisional governmentFrom 1921 until his death in 1924, Lenin tried to modernize the Soviet Union along Marxist lines..
  176. Leon Trotsky.
    In the fall of 1917, Lenin and Trotsky overthrew the provisional government.
  177. Stalin
    began to modernize the Soviet Union with a 5-year plan. He tried to transform the USSR
  178. Fascism
    a system of government that flourished in GerBoth communism and fascism are forms of Totalitarianism
  179. Mussolini
    described his rule as Totalitarian, a 20 century form of dictatorship in which the regime, using modern
  180. Nazism in Germany
    The Nazi regime began to act against the Jews because they considered them the "undesirables".
  181. Rise of Fascism in Japan
    During the 1930's, increased imperial aggression by Europe and America and the effects of the Great Depression
  182. World War II: 1939 - 1945
    Truly a global war which was waged over 2/3 of the entire planet
  183. the Holocaust:
    12 million victims, 6 million Jewish and 6 million non-Jewish, were killed in the German campaign of racial
  184. The Cold War
    was a political war between USSR and its communist allies against the United States and other
  185. Berlin Wall
    After WWII, U.S., France and Britain formed the German Federal Republic (Western Germany) and the USSR
  186. Collapse of the Soviet Union
    Communism collapsed in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe during 1989 - 1991
  187. Gorbachev
    called for economic reform and a greater emphasis on human rights throughout Eastern Europe.
  188. A global economy:
    The international spread of Capitalism in recent decades across national boundaries and with minimal restrictions by
  189. Atomic power
    the positive effects of atomic power are the possibility of obtaining energy from fusion/fission
  190. Atomic bomb
    the positive effects are that it shortened WWII and saved Allies lives. The negative side is that it
  191. Satellites
    in order to send radio signals around the Earth, scientists developed communications satellites.
  192. Computers, Internet and e-commerce
    In the last 30 years, computers have revolutionized almost every aspect of modern-day life..
  193. E-Commerce
    maintaining business relationships and selling info, service, and commodities by means of computer
  194. Technology
    the latest advances in technology use light instead of waves to transmit information. Glass fiber optic
  195. Space travel:
    the race to space started during the cold war when USSR and the US competed with each other to put
  196. Genetic manipulation
    scientists have recently "cracked the genetic code" of the human genome, after an
  197. 1492
    Columbus hits island off coast of North America.
  198. 1497
    England's Cabot claims New World
  199. 1500
    American Natives, Iroquois, unite in Northeast. Plains Indians use horses to follow buffalo herds.
  200. 1513
    Spain's Ponce de Leon claims Florida and parts of the southwest
  201. 1523 - 1524
    Verrazano establishes a French claim in North America
  202. 1607
    Virginia becomes first English colony
  203. 1609
    Hudson discovers Hudson river, NY, CT, NJ, and Delaware.
  204. 1620
    Pilgrims sign Mayflower Contract describing how they will be governed in Massachusetts.
  205. 1732
    13 English colonies
  206. 1754
    Benjamin Franklin tries to unite the colonies under the Albany Plan to provide an inter-colonial government
  207. 1769
    Boone explores Kentucky
  208. 1773
    Boston Tea party
  209. 1775
    Quakers establish first anti-slavery group
  210. 1775 - 1783
    American Revolution
  211. 1776
    Declaration of Independence
  212. 1777
    Articles of Confederation
  213. 1781
    Cornwallis surrenders
  214. 1787
    Constitution of U.S. and Bill of Rights
  215. 1789
    First President of U.S., George Washington
  216. 1793
    Whitney's cotton gin
  217. 1803
    Louisiana Purchase
  218. 1803
    Marbury v. Madison establishes judicial review
  219. 1804
    Lewis and Clark expedition
  220. 1812
    war of 1812, Britain v. U.S.
  221. 1820
    Democratic party arose
  222. 1823
    Monroe Doctrine
  223. 1840
    Manifest Destiny
  224. 1848
    Gold discovered in California, first women's movement meeting, Mexican war
  225. 1849 -
    Harriet Tubman escapes slavery
  226. 1850
    Fugitive Slave Act
  227. 1857
    Dred Scott decision
  228. 1860
    First Republican President Lincoln
  229. 1861
    Civil War begins at Fort Sumter
  230. 1863
    Emancipation Proclamation
  231. 1865
    Civil war ends when General Lee surrenders at Appomattox Courthouse, Pres. Lincoln assassinated
  232. 1865
    Amendments 13 passed to protect African Americans
  233. 1898
    Spanish- American war
  234. 1904 - 1914
    Panama Canal connects Atlantic with the Pacific ocean
  235. 1914 - 1918
    World War I
  236. 1920's
    Harlem Renaissance, Prohibition, 19th amendment - women can vote
  237. 1928 - 1940
    The Great Depression
  238. 1930's
    Roosevelt's New Deal
  239. 1945
    World War II comes to an end with atomic bomb
  240. 1950 - 1953
    Korean war
  241. 1954
    Desegregation, Brown v. Board of Ed
  242. 1954 - 1975
    Vietnam War
  243. 1963
    Martin Luther King's speech
  244. 1965
    voting rights to blacks
  245. 1975
    Vietnam war ends
  246. 1989
    Berlin wall falls, end of Cold War
  247. 1991
    World Wide Web
  248. Anasazi (cliff dwellers)
    "ancient ones" is the name given to the region where the 4 corners of Utah, Colorado,
  249. Inuit's (Eskimos)
    a widely dispersed group of peoples in the Arctic region of Alaska, Canada, Greenland, and
  250. Northwest Indians (Kwakiutl)
    occupied Vancouver Island, the adjacent mainland and the islands of British
  251. Plains Indians
    The Great Plains is vast, treeless grassland in the middle of our nation from the Mississippi River
  252. The Mound Builders
    Around 200BC - 500 AD, many different Native American groups lived along the
  253. Iroquois
    Sometime in the 1500's, 5 different Northeastern Indian tribes united, later 1 more(living in the
  254. Virginia
    In 1607,Virginia became the first English colony in America.
  255. Ponce de Leon
    sailed and discovered Florida and claimed it for Spain.
  256. Cortez
    sailed to Mexico and in 1532 crushed the Aztec civilization.
  257. Pizarro
    traveled to Peru and conquered the Inca Empire. Cortez conquered South America.
  258. Amerigo Vespucci
    made maps
  259. Ferdinand Magellan
    first in history to sail around the world
  260. Marco Polo
    -famous voyage to China in the late 1200's.
  261. Captain John Smith
    Organized Jamestown and imposed a harsh law "He who will not work shall not eat".
  262. House of Burgesses
    allowed white male property owners to vote.
  263. Pilgrims/ Massachusetts
    Indians showed the Pilgrims how to plant corn, pumpkins, beans, how to hunt and fish. To give thanks for the
  264. William Penn
    wanted to live in peace with the Indians, so rather than stealing their land, he offered to pay a fair
  265. Middle colonies
    New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey, centered on farming( large exports of grain).
  266. Colonial men
    did everything themselves: cleared field, planted, farmed the field, build house, furniture, fences.
  267. Colonial women
    many chores, took care of children, spun thread or yarn, sewed cloth into clothes, prepared and
  268. Colonial Towns
    neighbors, blacksmiths, carpenters, chimney sweeps, rope-makers, wheel-makers, barrel-makers,
  269. Slaves
    African slaves were brought to the New World with the first colonists.
  270. Colonial culture
    90% of colonists lived in rural areas.
  271. The American Revolution 1775-1783
    There were several causes for the American Revolution: a growing sense of patriotism and national identity,
  272. The Seven Years War
    1756 - 1763 it is also called the French and Indian War which is confusing because the
  273. Sugar Act of 1764
    The seven years war ran a huge debt for England who felt the colonists should help pay so the English parliament
  274. The Currency Act
    forbade colonists from issuing paper money.
  275. Stamp Act
    an act passed by the British parliament in 1756 that raised revenue from the American colonies by a duty in the form of a stamp required on all newspapers and legal or commercial documents
  276. Declaratory Act
    Parliament announces that they are in charge of the colonies
  277. the Townsend Acts
    a tax on glass, paper, lead, and tea.
  278. Boston Massacre-March 5, 1770
    conflict between colonists and British soldiers in which four colonists were killed
  279. Boston Tea Party
    demonstration (1773) by citizens of Boston who (disguised as Indians) raided three British ships in Boston harbor and dumped hundreds of chests of tea into the harbor
  280. The Battle of Concord
    is referred to as "the shot heard round the world" because colonial farmers just repelled the army of
  281. Thomas Paine
    wrote Common Sense where he argued for republicanism over a monarchy and colonial independence
  282. Declaration of Independence
    the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain
  283. Thomas Jefferson
    3rd President of the United States
  284. quote from the Declaration of Independence:
    "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal
  285. Articles of Confederation
    a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states
  286. Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation
    There were no separation of powers
  287. King George
    he felt that the colonists should help pay the debt from the seven year war and began passing taxation
  288. John Adams
    America's first Vice-President and second President. Sponsor of the American Revolution in Massachusetts, and wrote the Massachusetts guarantee that freedom of press "ought not to be restrained."
  289. George Washington
    1st President of the United States
  290. Thomas Jefferson
    3rd President of the United States
  291. Benjamin Franklin
    printer whose success as an author led him to take up politics
  292. The Constitution and the addition of The Bill of Rights:
    "We the people of the U.S., in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility,
  293. Senate
    term-6 years, number of members-100, requirements- must be 30 and a U.S. citizen for 4 years, leaders- Vice President, duties- represent each state.
  294. House of Representatives
    must be 25, 7 years of citizenship, 2 year term, 435 members, speaker of the house, no limit on terms
  295. Magna Carta
    the royal charter of political rights given to rebellious English barons by King John in 1215
  296. The Bill of Rights:
    the first ten amendments to the Constitution, dealing mostly with civil rights.
  297. 13th Amendment
    abolishes slavery in the U.S.
  298. 14th Amendment
    1) Citizenship for African Americans, 2) Repeal of 3/5 Compromise, 3) Denial of former confederate officials from holding national or state office, 4) Repudiate (reject) confederate debts
  299. 15th Amendment
    citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
  300. 19th Amendment
    Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
  301. Supreme Court
    the highest federal court in the United States
  302. The Constitution
    set up a federal system, in which political authority was divided between the national government and the state governments. Provided a seperation of power between the legislative, judicial, and executive branches of government
  303. Congress
    The legislative branch of government, as described in Article I of the US Constitution, consisting of the House of Representatives and Senate. Primarily responsible for making laws.
  304. Political parties
    organization that tries to influence gov. policy by promoting its ideas and backing candidates for office
  305. Marbury v. Madison
    supreme court case was the concept of judicial review
  306. Slavery
    a social-economic system under which certain persons � known as slaves � are deprived of personal freedom and compelled to perform labour or services
  307. Emancipation Proclamation
    Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
  308. Brown vs. Board of Education
    Stated in 1954 that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools (5 words),
  309. Rosa Parks
    United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
  310. Martin Luther King
    United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of Blacks (1929-1968)
  311. Westward expansion
    territorial acquisitions as settlers began moving westward beyond the Appalachian Mountains
  312. Louisiana Purchase
    territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
  313. Lewis and Clark expedition
    an expedition sent by Thomas Jefferson to explore the northwestern territories of the United States
  314. Manifest Destiny
    This expression was popular in the 1840s. Many people believed that the U.S. was destined to secure territory from "sea to sea," from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. This rationale drove the acquisition of territory.
  315. Henry David Thoreau
    Author of Walden who practiced ideas of transcendentalism.
  316. Trail of Tears
    The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
  317. Removal act of 1830
    an act to provide for an exchange of lands with lands further west
  318. Reconstruction
    the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
  319. abolition
    the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery)
  320. women's suffrage
    the women's right to vote. The movement developed from the fight against slavery.
  321. Fugitive Slave Act
    was a law that was passed as part of the Compromise of 1850, providing southern
  322. The Dred Scott decision
    Supreme Court decision in 1857 that ruled that slaves were property, not people, and Congress did not have the right to outlaw slavery in any territory.
  323. Abraham Lincoln
    16th President of the United States
  324. The Gettysburg Address
    speech by Lincoln after the battle of Gettysburg
  325. Jefferson Davis
    President of the Confederate States of America
  326. Frederick Douglass
    United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)
  327. William Lloyd Garrison
    United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)
  328. Harriet Tubman
    United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)
  329. Harriet Beecher Stowe
    United States writer of a novel about slavery that advanced the abolitionists' cause (1811-1896)
  330. John Brown
    abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
  331. Plessy v. Ferguson:
    court upheld segregation it ruled seperate but equal facilities did not violate the fourteenth ammendment.
  332. Andrew Carnegie
    United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
  333. John D. Rockefeller
    Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
  334. J.P. Morgan
    an American financier, banker, philanthropist, and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time.
  335. Pluralism
    a conviction that various religious, ethnic, racial, and political groups should be allowed to thrive in a
  336. Melting Pot
    a term expressing the view that immigrants to the United States have been fused or melted into a
  337. Multiculturalism
    various cultures in a society merit equal respect and scholarly interest.
  338. Labor movement
    the formation of labor unions, during the 1880's, for the workers to receive better treatment by
  339. Spanish-American War
    1898 war between Spain and U.S.
  340. Panama Canal
    connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, built from 1904 - 1914.
  341. Elizabeth Stanton
    was an American social activist and leading figure of the early woman's movement. is often credited with initiating the first organized woman's rights and woman's suffrage movements in the United States.
  342. Hiroshima
    site of 1st Atomic Bomb, killing 70,000+ Japanese citizens
  343. Nagasaki
    site of 2nd Atomic Bomb, killing 40,000+ Japanese citizens
  344. The baby boom
    Anyone born between 1946 and 1964, roughly.
  345. The Cuban missile Crisis:
    When Kruchev tried to build nuclear bases in Cuba, the two superpowers were brought to the brink of war. This base was just 90 miles away from Florida and was a threat to the US. In 1962, President Kennedy declared a naval blockade of Cuba. In the end, Kruchev agreed to remove the missiles from Cuba.
  346. McCarthyism
    became a synonym for public charges of disloyalty without sufficient regard for evidence.
  347. Black lists
    In 1954, McCarthy accused the army of harboring Communists and they fought back in the Army-McCarthy hearings
  348. Affirmative action
    a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
  349. Civil Rights movement
    movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
  350. Environmentalism
    An ideology that is dominated by concern for the environment but also promotes grassroots democracy, social justice, equal opportunity, nonviolence, respect for diversity, and feminism.
  351. Feudalism
    a system of obligations that bound lords and their subjects in Europe during much of the Middle Ages.
  352. Communism
    An economic and social system envisioned by the 19th century German scholar, Karl MarxIn theory, all means of production are owned in common, rather than by individuals..
  353. Liberal Democracy
    rule by the people, helps prevent rule by cruels aristocrats, modern democracies don't fight wars with each other.
  354. Federalism
    a system of government which power is divided between a national government (federal) and regional government.
  355. Democracy
    a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
  356. Theocracy
    a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)
  357. Legislative Branch
    the branch of the United States government that has the power of legislating, The legislative branch creates the laws. There are two houses in it. One is the Senators. There are two senators per state. There is also a House of represenitives. The amount of people per state depends on how big the population is.
  358. Judicial Branch
    The judicial branch decides what the laws mean. For example: The law, don't litter implies on trash being thrown outside. But it does not consider throwing away a bitten piece of food.
  359. Executive Branch
    The Executive Branch carries out the laws. A word for this would be "execute". The only member in this group is the president of the united states of america.
  360. Electoral college
    a group selected by the states to elect the president and the vice-president, in which each state's number of electors is equal to the number of its senators and representatives in Congress
  361. Naturalization
    the proceeding whereby a foreigner is granted citizenship
  362. Minority
    a smaller group of people who differ racially or politically or religiously, or economically from a larger
  363. Ethnicity
    an ethnic quality or affiliation resulting from racial or cultural ties
  364. Stereotypes
    generalized beliefs about what members of an identifiable group are like that operate as schemas when perceiving members of those groups
  365. Ideals
    a principle or a way of behaving that is of a very high standard. Idealism is the belief that your ideals can be achieved, often when this doesn't seem likely to others.
  366. Biases
    a prejudice towards one particular point of view or ideology.
  367. Prejudice
    a hostile opinion about some person or class of persons.
  368. Discrimination
    to show favor or disfavor unjustly often based on prejudice and/or bias for or against a person or group of persons.
  369. Cognitive development
    the growth of the person's ability to learn
  370. Behavioralism
    a theory that psychology is essentially a study of external human behavior rather than internal consciousness and desires.
  371. Capitalism
    an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
  372. Socialism
    an economic theory advocating collective ownership of factories, mines and other businesses
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Praxis II Study Guide 1
Praxis II 0086
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