Sociology - Chapter 4 Vocab

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Sociology - Chapter 4 Vocab
2012-03-20 16:30:29

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  1. social structure
    network of interrelated statuses and roles that guides human interaction
  2. status
    socially defined position in a group or in a society
  3. ascribed status
    status assigned according to standards that are beyong a persons control
  4. acheived status
    status acquired by an individual on the basis of some special skill, knowledge, ability
  5. master status
    status that plays the greatest role in shaping a persons life and determining his or her social identity
  6. roles
    behavior, the rights and obligations, expected of someone occupying a particular status
  7. reciprical role
    corresponding roles that define the patterns of interaction between related statuses
  8. role expectations
    socially determined behaviors expected of a person performing a role
  9. role performance
    actual behavior of a person performing a role
  10. role set
    different roles attached to a single status
  11. role conflict
    situation that occurs when fulfilling the expectations of one roles makes it difficult to fulfil the expectations of another role
  12. role strain
    situation that occurs when a person has difficulty meeting the expectations of a single role
  13. social institutions
    system of statuses, roles, values, and norms that is organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of society
  14. competition
    interaction that occurs when two or more persons or groups oppose each other to achieve a goal that only one can attain
  15. conflict
    deliberate attempt to oppose, harm, control by force, or resist the will of another person/persons
  16. cooperation
    interaction that occurs when two or more persons or gourps work together to achieve a goal that will benefit many people
  17. accommodation
    state of balance between cooperation and conflict
  18. aggregate
    group of people gathered in the same place at the same time who lack oranization or lasting patterns of interaction
  19. exchange
    individual, group, or societal interaction undertaken in an effort to receive a reward in return for actions
  20. exchange theory
    theory that holds that people are motivated by self-interests in their interactions with other people
  21. e-community
    a community of people who interact through the internet of other electronic communication
  22. expressive leaders
    leaders who are emotion-oriented
  23. reciprocity
    idea that if you do something for someone, they owe you something in return
  24. reference group
    any group with whom individuals identify and whose attitudes and values they often adopt
  25. primary group
    small group of people who interact over a relatively long period of time on a direct and personal basis
  26. social category
    group of people who share a common trait or status
  27. small group
    group with few enough numbers that everyone is able to interact on a face-to-face basis
  28. secondary group
    group in which interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature
  29. social network
    web of relationships that is formed by the sum total of an individual's interactions with other people
  30. out-group
    any group that an individual does not belong to or identify with
  31. leaders
    people who influence the attitudes and opinions of others
  32. instumental leaders
    leaders who are task-oriented
  33. in-group
    group that an individual belongs to and identifies with
  34. informal group
    a group in which there is no official structure or established rules of conduct
  35. formal group
    a group in which the structure, goals, and activities of the group are clearly defined
  36. dyad
    a group with two members
  37. triad
    a group with three members
  38. bureaucracy
    ranked authority structure that operates according to specific rules and procedure
  39. formal organization
    large, complex secondary group that has been established to achieve specific goals
  40. iron law of oligarchy
    tendency of organizations to become increasingly dominated by small groups of people
  41. rationality
    the process of subjecting every feature of human behavior to calculation, measurement, and control
  42. voluntary association
    nonprofit association formed to pursue some common interest