MICROBIOLOGY.txt

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mescalera1986
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MICROBIOLOGY.txt
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MICRO BIOLOGY
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MICRO BIOLOGY
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  1. Central Dogma of Genetics
    DNA to RNA to Proteins
  2. DNA to RNA to Proteins
    Central Dogma of Genetics
  3. RNA Polymerase (prok) converts DNA into RNA
    Gen: Transcription
  4. Gen: Transcription
    RNA Polymerase (prok) converts DNA into RNA
  5. Ribosomes transfer information from mRNA into a polypeptide
    Gen: Translation
  6. Gen: Translation
    Ribosomes transfer information from mRNA into a polypeptide
  7. Stable types of RNA
    tRNA and rRNA
  8. tRNA and rRNA
    Stable types of RNA
  9. They perform the major functions of the cell
    Proteins (do what for the cell?)
  10. Proteins (do what for the cell?)
    They perform the major functions of the cell
  11. Unstable RNA
    mRNA (stability?)


  12. mRNA (stability?)


    Unstable RNA
  13. Prok: tRNA has how many nucleotides
    79 Nucleotides
  14. Approximate weight of a nucleotide
    350 MW
  15. Polycistronic DNA
    More than one gene per operon
  16. More than one gene per operon
    Polycistronic DNA
  17. One amino acid is coded for by___mRNA nucleotides
    3 Nucleotides (code for _____)
  18. 3 Nucleotides (code for _____)
    One amino acid is coded for by___mRNA nucleotides
  19. The part of RNA Polymerase that does the transcribing
    Prok: Core (think transcription device)
  20. Prok: Core (think transcription device)
    The part of RNA Polymerase that does the transcribing

  21. Prok: RNA Polymerase Core components

    Alpha and beta subunits
  22. Alpha and beta subunits

    Prok: RNA Polymerase Core components

  23. Prok: Binds a promoter allowing RNA Polymerase to transcribe
    Sigma Factor/Initiation Factor/Specificity Factor
  24. Sigma Factor/Initiation Factor/Specificity Factor
    Prok: Binds a promoter allowing RNA Polymerase to transcribe
  25. Prok: Core and Sigma Factor
    Holoenzyme
  26. Holoenzyme
    Prok: Core and Sigma Factor
  27. Prok: RNA Polymerase holoenzyme bound to promoter of duplex
    Closed complex of transcription
  28. Closed complex of transcription
    Prok: RNA Polymerase holoenzyme bound to promoter of duplex
  29. Prok: Closed complex is followed by____
    Prok: _____ is followed by open complex
  30. Prok: _____ is followed by open complex
    Prok: Closed complex is followed by____
  31. Prok: Given off after transcription begins
    Prok: Sigma Factor and ppi
  32. Prok: Sigma Factor and ppi
    Prok: Given off after transcription begins
  33. Pyrophosphate
    ppi
  34. ppi
    Pyrophosphate
  35. The three phases of transcription

    Initiation, Elongation, Termination
  36. Initiation, Elongation, Termination
    The three phases of transcription

  37. Inacts termination
    Terminator loop
  38. Terminator loop
    Inacts termination
  39. Structure of terminator loop (RNA)
    String of G, then C bonds followed by U's
  40. String of G, then C bonds followed by U's
    Structure of terminator loop (RNA)
  41. How does the terminator loop work?
    String of G bond to string of C and snapp off string of U
  42. String of G bond to string of C and snapp off string of U
    How does the terminator loop work?
  43. Plasmids and Gen Eng Tech
    Gen Eng Tech: transformation by plasmids
  44. Restriction Enzymes
    Cut DNA at specific sequences (sites)
  45. Cut DNA at specific sequences (sites)
    Restriction Enzymes
  46. Molecular Cloning
    Gen Eng Tech: using Foreign DNA in vectors to form hybrid DNA Molecules
  47. Gen Eng Tech: using Foreign DNA in vectors to form hybrid DNA Molecules
    Molecular Cloning
  48. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
    Amplify "any" specific DNA frag of gene
  49. Amplify "any" specific DNA frag of gene
    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
  50. First in restrition is recognition of_____ DNA as non-self
    Foreign
  51. Second in Restriction is cleavage of foreign DNA by _______ at a restriction site
    restriction enzyme
  52. Restriction site (Specific nucleotide sequence) is how long?
    4-6 base pairs
  53. A bacterium's "own" DNA protected from restrction enzymes
    Purpose of Modification
  54. Purpose of Modification
    A bacterium's "own" DNA protected from restrction enzymes
  55. Gen Eng Tech: Modification
    addition of a methyl group to "own" DNA by DNA modification enzyme
  56. addition of a methyl group to "own" DNA by DNA modification enzyme
    Gen Eng Tech: Modification
  57. Modification enzyme is a_______
    DNA methylase (it serves as a what?)
  58. DNA methylase (it serves as a what?)
    Modification enzyme is a_______
  59. Restriction enzyme that cuts the middle of a peptide strand
    Endonuclease
  60. Endonuclease
    Restriction enzyme that cuts the middle of a peptide strand
  61. symmetry; palmindrome
    structure of restriction site
  62. structure of restriction site
    symmetry; palmindrome
  63. Complementary ends of DNA, that is staggered/"sticky" ends OR blunt ends
    What is left over after DNA is cut at a restriction site?
  64. What is left over after DNA is cut at a restriction site?
    Complementary ends of DNA, that is staggered/"sticky" ends OR blunt ends
  65. Hybrid DNA Molecule
    A target plus a vector (used in molecular cloning)
  66. A target plus a vector (used in molecular cloning)
    Hybrid DNA Molecule
  67. Cloning: Target
    Gene or DNA fragment of interest
  68. Gene or DNA fragment of interest
    Cloning: Target
  69. Cloning: examples of usable vectors
    Plasmid, phage, virus
  70. Plasmid, phage, virus
    Cloning: examples of usable vectors
  71. Injecting a host cell with the Hybrid DNA molecule allows what (cloning)
    Allows host cell to replicate hybrid and allow expression of the target gene
  72. Cloning: Examples of possible host cells
    Gen tech Eng: Bacteria, yeast, animal or human cells
  73. Human Cloning: (Steps)
    Purify messenger RNA (after introns are already spliced out)
    Human Cloning: Copy mRNA into DNA with Reverse Transciptase (use DNA as target)
  74. Human Cloning: Copy mRNA into DNA with Reverse Transciptase...
    Human Cloning: Cut target DNA with restriction enzyme
  75. Human Cloning: Cut target DNA with restriction enzyme...
    Human Cloning: Purify vector DNA and cut with restriction enzyme
  76. Human Cloning: Purify vector DNA and cut with restriction enzyme...
    Human Cloning: Mix the DNA's; inactivate rest enzyme, anneal, ligate
  77. Human Cloning: Mix the DNA's; inactivate rest enzyme, anneal, ligate
    Human Cloning: Transform bacterial host
  78. Genomics
    Study of genes & sites in a chromosome by determining and analyzing the nucleotide sequence of entire chromosome.
  79. Study of genes & sites in a chromosome by determining and analyzing the nucleotide sequence of entire chromosome.
    Genomics
  80. Functional genomics
    Study of functions of cell or of an organism by analyzing the chromosome's nucleotide sequence
  81. Study of functions of cell or of an organism by analyzing the chromosome's nucleotide sequence
    Functional genomics
  82. Structural genomics
    Study of 3D struct of proteins by looking at amino acid sequence (from nucleotides) and comparing it to databases for protein structure
  83. Study of 3D struct of proteins by looking at amino acid sequence (from nucleotides) and comparing it to databases for protein structure
    Structural genomics
  84. Bioinfomatics
    Using software and algorithms to analyze gene and protein sequenes and compare to data bases
  85. Using software and algorithms to analyze gene and protein sequenes and compare to data bases
    Bioinfomatics
  86. Algorithm
    Rules for procedures for solving math. prob, usually involving repetitive operations
  87. Rules for procedures for solving math. prob, usually involving repetitive operations
    Algorithm
  88. Homology
    extent of similarity between different genes or between different proteins
  89. extent of similarity between different genes or between different proteins
    Homology
  90. Genes which encode similar proteins have______ nucleiotide sequences
    similar
  91. DNA Sequencing
    Using overlapping fragments to deduce entire chromosome seq
  92. Orthologous Proteins (Orthologs)
    similar proteins from different species
  93. paralogous proteins (paralogs)
    similar proteins within same organism
  94. DNA arrays/gene arrays/microarrays/DNA chips
    DNA fragments corresponding to every gene (ORF) fixed to tiny separate spots on a slide
  95. DNA fragments corresponding to every gene (ORF) fixed to tiny separate spots on a slide
    DNA arrays/gene arrays/microarrays/DNA chips
  96. Using overlapping fragments to deduce entire chromosome seq
    DNA Sequencing
  97. similar proteins from different species
    Orthologous Proteins (Orthologs)
  98. similar proteins within same organism
    paralogous proteins (paralogs)
  99. Purpose of DNA arrays
    detect and quantitate mRNA from every gene
  100. Human cloning: Transform bacterial host
    select transformants
  101. Chamydia trachomatis
  102. Rickettsia rickettsii
  103. Rickettsia prowazekii
  104. Mycology
    study of molds and yeasts (of fungi
  105. study of molds and yeasts (of fungi
    Mycology
  106. molds
    filamentious organisms
  107. filamentious organisms
    molds
  108. yeasts
    singe cells which produce progeny by budding, usually
  109. singe cells which produce progeny by budding, usually
    yeasts
  110. coenocytic
    no perpendicula cross walls (ex: molds)
  111. no perpendicula cross walls (ex: molds)
    coenocytic
  112. septate
    with cross walls with pores (molds)
  113. with cross walls with pores (molds)
    septate
  114. mycelium
    mass of hyphae (molds)
  115. mass of hyphae (molds)
    mycelium
  116. arthrospores
    separate spores at hypha end formed by cell division
  117. separate spores at hypha end formed by cell division
    arthrospores
  118. chlamydospores
    spores surrounded by thick wall before separation
  119. spores surrounded by thick wall before separation
    chlamydospores
  120. sporangiospores
    within sac at hypha end
  121. within sac at hypha end
    sporangiospores
  122. conidiospores
    produced at tip, no sac
  123. produced at tip, no sac
    conidiospores
  124. blastospores
    produced by budding from vegatative mother cell
  125. produced by budding from vegatative mother cell
    blastospores
  126. homothallic
    self-fertilizing, compatible gametes on the same mycelium
  127. self-fertilizing, compatible gametes on the same mycelium
    homothallic
  128. heterothalic
    crossing between different but compatible mycelia.
  129. crossing between different but compatible mycelia.
    heterothalic
  130. Zygomycota, Ascomycota, ____________
    Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes)
  131. Zygomycota, _____________, Basidiomycota
    Ascomycota (Ascomycetes)
  132. _____________, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota
    Zygomycota (Zygomycetes)
  133. Chlamydia Trachomatis
  134. Chlamydia Trachomatis causes______
    Trachoma (rough eye)~caused by what?
  135. Trachoma (rough eye)~caused by what?
    Chlamydia Trachomatis causes______
  136. Rickettsia prowazekii
  137. Rickettsia prowazekii
  138. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  139. Mycoplasma pneumoniae
  140. Symbiosis
    Name for organisms living together
  141. Name for organisms living together
    Symbiosis
  142. mutualism
    both benefit
  143. both benefit
    mutualism
  144. commensalism


    one benefits and the other is indifferent
  145. one benefits and the other is indifferent
    commensalism


  146. parasitism
    one benefits and the other is harmed

  147. one benefits and the other is harmed

    parasitism
  148. contamination

    microorganism present
  149. microorganism present
    contamination

  150. infection
    multiplication of parasites on or in body
  151. multiplication of parasites on or in body
    infection
  152. Disease
    disturbance of normal state; normal functions can not be performed
  153. disturbance of normal state; normal functions can not be performed
    Disease
  154. pathogen
    organism capable of causing disease
  155. organism capable of causing disease
    pathogen
  156. pathogenicity
    capacity to cause disease
  157. capacity to cause disease
    pathogenicity
  158. virulence
    degree of intensity of disease, degree of pathogenicity
  159. degree of intensity of disease, degree of pathogenicity
    virulence
  160. normal flora
    commensals; parasites (are what_____)
  161. commensals; parasites (are what_____)
    normal flora
  162. Enteric organisms are gram ____
    negative
  163. Morphology of enteric organisms
    rods
  164. Enteric organisms grow where?
    In intestine or warmblooded organisms
  165. Staphylococcus aureus (opportunistic pathogen of the skin)
  166. Streptococcus pyogenes (pathogen of upper respiratory tract)
  167. Pneumocystis carinii (opportunisic pathogen of the upper respiratory tract)
  168. Streptococcus mutans
  169. Helicobacter pylori (ulcers)
  170. Escherichia coli
  171. Coliform
    Rod, gram neg, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobes
  172. Rod, gram neg, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobes
    Coliform

  173. Lactic acid bacteria (ex: commensals)
  174. Candida albicans (opportunistic pathogen of the urogenital tract)
  175. Transmission:
    __________, vehicles, vectors
    contact
  176. Contact:
    Direct, indirect, _______
    droplets
  177. Vehicles:
    Food, water, blood, droplet nuclei,________
    airborn dust
  178. Salmonellosis (caused by?)
    Salmonella (found in food)
  179. Dust vehicle example
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  180. Pathology
    Study of disease
  181. Study of disease
    Pathology
  182. etiology
    study of the cause of a disease
  183. study of the cause of a disease
    etiology
  184. Koch's First Postulate
    Same organism present in every case of disease
  185. K1: Same organism present in every case of disease, K2...
    Organism must be isolated from diseased host and grown in a pure culture
  186. must be isolated from diseased host and grown in a pure culture, K3...
    Adding the pure culture into susceptible host causes the same disease
  187. Adding the pure culture into susceptible host causes the same disease, K4...
    Same organism must be isolated from the same host and grown again in a pure culture
  188. Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme disease from deer tick vector)
  189. Endemic
    alway present (ex: Histoplasm capsulatum)
  190. Epidemic
    Sudden increase in occurance
  191. pandemic
    world-wide epidemic (ex: HIV)
  192. Sporadic
    localized outbreak (ex: Hanta virus)
  193. Primary Infection vs_________
    Secondary infection (ex: Pneumonia from staphylococcus aureus)
  194. Incidence
    Number of new cases for a disease per time period (a rate)
  195. Prevalence
    total number of cases of disease withing a population at any time
  196. Universal precautions
    rules for handling infectious material or potentially infectious material (wear gloves, no eating in the lab)
  197. Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus by exotoxin on plasmid)
  198. Why is life so great?
    Jesus loves me
  199. Characteristics of molds
    Mass of hyphae
  200. A single fungal spore germinates into a...
    monokaryotic mycelium
  201. What is some organism that is coenocytic?
    Molds
  202. colonize mucus membranes
    gonorr, tube, pyog, pallid
  203. Interferon
    antiviral protein; host specific (not for specific virus)
  204. cationic peptides
    alter bacterial cytoplasmic membrane permeability
  205. neutrophils stain how?
    stain at neutral
  206. basophils
    vasoactive mediators; stain with basic dye
  207. eosinophils
    phagocytosis; stain with acidic dye
  208. monocytes become_______ &______ in tissues
    macrophages & dendritic cells
  209. Megakaryocytes become
    platelets (sort of bud off?)
  210. Agranulocytes
    lymphocytes & monocytes etc
  211. Most leukocytes are...
    neutrophils...followed by lymphocytes
  212. White blood cells (WBC) are also called
    leukocytes
  213. How do macrophages bind to foreign stuff...
    with mannose receptors and receptors for antibodies
  214. Macrophages are found...
    in all tissues; lymphoid tissues
  215. Dendritic cells are found
    in mucus membranes
  216. Phagocytosis: Chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, __________, & exocytosis
    digestion
  217. Phagosome + Lysosome
    phagolysosome
  218. Inflammation: Margination, ________, Phagocytosis
    Diapedesis
  219. Inflammation: Margination
    Phagocytes stick to endothelium
  220. Inflammation: Diapedesis
    phagocytes squeeze between endothelial cells
  221. Inflammation: Selectins displayed on the endothelium attract______
    neutrophils
  222. Inflammation: Selectins bind to....
    integrins on neutrophils
  223. This enhances phagocytosis by bridging the innate and adaptive immunity
    Complement system
  224. Key to the complement system is ....
    C3 Convertase
  225. C3 Convertase produces: peptide mediators of inflammation, opsonization of pathogens and...
    membrane attack complexes
  226. C3 Convertase is activated by antigen-antibody complexes or...
    Mannose Binding Protein
  227. Mannose Binding Protein is...
    an opsonin that activates C3 Convertase
  228. If a bacteria cell is bound by C3b and antibody...
    phagocytes go crazy for it
  229. Cytokines can make another cell undergo chemotaxis, apoptosis, proliferation, inhibition of proliferation and....
    differentiation
  230. Apoptosis
    programmed cell death
  231. Leukocytes release______to act on other leukocytes
    interleukins
  232. lymphocytes produce_____to act on other lymphocytes
    lymphokines
  233. Lymphocytes are a kind of_______
    agranulocyte (all WBCs or Leukocytes)

  234. B Lymphocyte deficiency
    agammaglobulinemia
  235. T lymphocyte deficiency
    DiGeorge Syndrome
  236. B and T Cell Deficiency

    SCID
  237. Humoral immunity produces...
    soluble proteins called antibodies that circulate through the blood
  238. Antibodies are found in...
    blood, lymph,saliva, mother's milk, mucus
  239. This non-enveloped virus is neutralized by antibodies
    Polio
  240. Co-receptors _____ &____ help the B-lymphocyte to attach to an antigen
    Ig ALPHA & Ig BETA
  241. B-Cell Activation: Phagocyte presents antigen on MHC II, T-Helper-0 binds with receptor and CD4 co-receptor, becomes Helper 2, Signal transduction of T Cell Lymphokines...
    B-Cell with receptor for that epitope binds
  242. Once the B-cell has bound the T-Helper 2, the B-cell proliferates and differentiates to become...
    plasma cell and memory cell
  243. Light chain: Germ line DNA (splicing), B-cell DNA, _____, light chain
    mRNA (splicing)
  244. IgG
    Gamma Heavy chain, monomeric
  245. IgM
    Mu Heavy chain, pentameric
  246. T-Cell Activation: Phagocyte expresses epitope on MHC I with B7's help, matching naive T-cell binds with help of CD8 and CD28 co-receptors, interleukin 2 gene expressed, protein synthesized...
    stimulates own proliferation & differentiation into T-Helper 1
  247. T-Helper 1 further differentiates into cytotoxic T cells and memory cells
  248. Perforin Protein
    makes pores
  249. Major Histocompatibility Comlex II only on...
    macrophages & dendritic cells and B &T Cells
  250. Small pox vaccine

    major triumph; used vaccinia virus
  251. polio vaccine
    Salk-killed virus
    Sabin-attenuated strains grown in monkey kidney cells)
  252. tetanus vaccine
    toxoids--chemically altered toxins
  253. Hepatitis B vaccine
    subunit vaccines
  254. subunit vaccine is...
    viral proteins expressed by recombinant DNA tech
  255. Antisera
    Contains antibodies
  256. hemagglutination
    clumping of red blood cells by antibodies
  257. influenza & Measles both clump RBC with...
    viral hemagglutination
  258. Measles virus are______by antibodies
    neutralized
  259. ELISA Direct: Purpose?
    detects antigens using known antibodies
  260. ELISA Indirect: Purpose?
    Detects antibodies using known antigens
  261. ELISA Direct: Antibodies on plate, add__________, add known antibodies/wash, add chromogenic substrate of the enzyme of chemiluminescent substrate
    add antigen/wash
  262. ELISA Indirect: fix known antigen on plate, _________, add enzyme linked to anti-antibody serum/wash, add chromogenic/chemiluminescent substrate for the enzyme
    add test antiserum
  263. Western Blot-Immunoblot: Purpose?
    Detects unknown antigens (often of proteins) with known antibodies
  264. Western Blot-immunoblot: Separate proteins with SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, transfer to inert membrane,___________, probe membrane with chromogenic/chemiluminescent substrate
    probe membrane with known enzyme linked antibodies to the antigen of interest/wash
  265. Idea immunoprecipitation occurs....
    with a large lattice aggregate
  266. Type I Immune disorder
    anaphalaxis and allergy
  267. Type II Immune Disorders

    Hypersensitivity and Cytotoxic Reactions (blood groups,etc)
  268. What prevent mix-ups in transfusions
    blood typing (video game) & cross matching bloods
  269. Cross-matching bloods: Major
    Recipient serum and donor RBC
  270. Cross Matching Bloods: Minor
    Recipient RBC and Donor serum
  271. Erythroblastosis fetalis
    Rh neg mom makes anti-Rh antibodies against second child
  272. Hemoglobin is degraded to
    bilirubin (toxic)
  273. Bilirubin is broken down by...
    fluorescent light
  274. Type III Immune Problem
    Immune complexes damage host
  275. What if antigen-antibody complex is too small for a phagocyte to ingest?
    complexes lodge in tissue causing inflammation, phagocytes arrive and release dangerous digestive enzymes into tissue
  276. Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis
    inflammation of the glomeruli (basement membrane of the kidney)
  277. Type III immune prob hits:
    joints (arthritis), kidney, skin, blood vessels, heart/lungs
  278. Type IV Immune Disorder: Delayed CMI Reaction--Basically, on the second exposure, antigen fragments are presented on the host cell surfaces (poison oak on skin):
    cytokines increase vascular permeability and attract leucocytes which damage skin
  279. How does the TB test work? Tuberculin (TB protein with antigen) is placed under the skin...
    Stimulates CMI if there has alread been an infection
  280. Herpes 1 &2 AND Epstein-Barr Virus, structure?
    DNA, DS, Enveloped, Icosahedral
  281. Smallpox, structure?
    DNA, DS, Enveloped, Complex
  282. Papillomavirus, structure?
    DNA, DS, Naked, Icosahedral
  283. Parvovirus, structure?
    DNA, SS, Naked, Icosahedral
  284. HIV AND Human T-cell Leukemia Virus, structure?
    RNA, SS, Positive, Enveloped, Icosahedral
  285. Polio, structure?
    RNA, SS, Positive, Naked, Icosahedral
  286. Influenza Virus, structure?
    RNA, SS, Negative, Enveloped, Helical
  287. Measles, structure?
    RNA, SS, Negative, Enveloped, Helical
  288. herpes 1 & 2 cause
    fever blisters, resperatory infections (2 genital)
  289. EBV causes
    infectious mononucleosis
  290. Rotavirus, structure?
    RNA, SS, Naked Icosahedral
  291. Rotavirus causes
    Human gastroenteritis
  292. Rubivirus, structure?
    RNA, SS, Positive, Enveloped, Icosahedral
  293. Rubivirus causes
    Rubella
  294. lyssavirus, structure?
    RNA, SS, Negative, Enveloped, Helical
  295. Lyssavirus causes
    rabies
  296. Bacteria convert food into...
    Low molecular weight comounds
  297. Low molecular weight compounds are...
    Amino acids, fatty acids, monosaccharides, nucleotides
  298. Four types of macromolecules...
    proteins, lipids, polysaccharides, RNA&DNA
  299. Bacterial cell walls are made out of
    peptidoglycan
  300. A cell in a hypertonic solution will____H2O
    lose
  301. Bacterial cytoplamsic membranes are involved in food accumulation, _____, cell wall component synthesis, signal transduction , secretion
    metabolic pathways
  302. Peptidoglycan involves cross links between...
    amino acid side chains
  303. Cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm, cell wall
    Gram positive
  304. cytoplasmic membrane, periplasm, cell wall, (lipoprotein), phospholipid monolayer, lipopolysaccharide
    Gram Negative Bacteria
  305. Decline in nutrients or heat might cause...
    spore formation
  306. Chemotaxis works because the flagella tumbles______when there is food near
    less
  307. bacteria move by swimming (flagella), flexing (flagella in periplasm), _____ and swarming (flagella)
    Gliding (no flagella)
  308. In order to "glide" bacteria might extend and retract the...
    pilus
  309. E.coli has what type of chromosome
    circuluar haploid
  310. E.coli 's chromosome has how many genes?
    5300
  311. Ecoli's chromosome has how many strands?
    two, double
  312. A nucleotide pair has what molecular wieght
    660 molecular weight / pair
  313. E.coli's chromomsome is about how long?
    1100 micro meters
  314. E.coli has about how many nucleotides per strand?
    4.6X10^6
  315. EUKARYOTES: have a true nucleus, prokaryotes have a
    nucleoid
  316. Eucaryotes divide by mitosis, prokaryotes divide by
    binary fission
  317. Eukaryotes reproduce by sexual reproduction, meiosis, Prokaryotes...
    have none or primitive sex
  318. Eukaryotes have mitochondria, prokaryotes...
    have none
  319. Eukaryotes that are plants have chloroplasts, prokaryotes...
    have none or chromatophores
  320. Cell wall are only had by Eukaryotes that are____&_____
    plants or fungi
  321. Fungi cell walls are made of
    chitin
  322. plant cell walls are made of
    cellulose
  323. Eukaryotes have ribosomes 80s; prokaryotes have...
    70s
  324. Eukaryotes are 8 to 100 microns in diameter, prokaryotes are ...
    1 to 3 microns
  325. Germination of endospores (entails what?)
    spores resume metabolism and form growing cells
  326. Obligate aerobic
    requires O2 (ex: pseudomonas aeruginosa)
  327. microaerophilic
    requires O2, but in low concentration (ex: neisseria gonorrhoeae
  328. Facultative anaerobe
    growth with or without O2, better with O2 (ex E. Coli)
  329. Aerotolerant anaerobic
    grow equally well with or without O2-Enterococcus fecalis
  330. obligate anaerobic
    cannot grow in O2 (clostridium tetani)
  331. Number of bacteria after n divisions
    =Nsub0*2^n
  332. ph=
    -log[H+]
  333. Keq=
    [H+} *[OH-] / [h2O]
  334. Kw=
    [h+]* [OH-}
  335. Used as a tissue preservative
    formaldehyde
  336. poisonous gas that kills bacteria
    ethylene oxide
  337. used in wound cleaning
    Hydrogen peroxide
  338. some heavy metals that kill bacteria are silver nitrate (AgNO3) and...
    Mercury (Hg)
  339. A disinfectant kills pathogens on objects while a _____ kills pathogens on the body
    antiseptic
  340. some acids that kill bacteria are propionic acid, calcium propionate, glutamic acid and
    Monosodium glutamate
  341. Some alcohols that denature the proteins of bacteria are ...
    isopropyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, antiseptics
  342. High absorbance (optical density) means
    high turbidity
  343. Death by drying
    desiccation
  344. Salvarsan
    Original syphilis cure; arsenic derivative
  345. Sulfa drugs (sulfonamides) work by...
    disrupting folic acid synthesis
  346. sulfa drugs pretend to be
    para amino benzoic acid
  347. What is the money spot of penicillin?
    The beta-lactam ring
  348. B lactam ring is a structural analog of
    D-alanine-D-alanine
  349. Reverse Transcriptase makes
    DNA from RNA
  350. antibiotic
    something produced by one organism that is toxic to another
  351. streptocycin inhibits
    prokaryotic ribosome 70s
  352. Azidothymidine (azt) works by
    disrupting reverse transcription by being a structural analog of thymidine
  353. high energy bond or anhydride bond refers to the covalent bond when
    two acids condense
  354. Glycoside
  355. glycosidic bond
    bonds between glycosides
  356. Covalent bond between two sulfur atoms when two sulfhydryls are linked
    disulfide bond (cystine bond)
  357. covalent bond between two amino acids
    peptide bond
  358. D Glucose and L Glucose are
    enantiomers
  359. steroisomers have the same chemical formulas, same functional groups, but different...
    geometry
  360. These have two or more asymetric carbons and differ in orientation only around one asymetric carbon
    diastereomers (epimers)
  361. In enatiomers, D stands for
    Dextrorotatory
  362. In enantiomers, L stands for
    Levorotatory
  363. Adenine and Guanine are...
    purines
  364. cytosine, thymine, and uracil are
    pyrimidines
  365. N-glycosidic bonds are found in
    mononucleotides
  366. O-glycosidic bonds are found in
    polysaccharides
  367. When sequencing you cut up a bunch of chromosomes, clone in plasmids and phages, ________, close gaps between contigs, annotation
    identify genes by comparing against known protein sequences
  368. homology
    degree of identity
  369. orthologous proteins
    similar proteins from different species
  370. Annotation of DNA (in sequencing): You must find the protein coding regions, what criteria?
    >79 codons, Shine -Dalgarno sequences
  371. How do you make a DNA array/gene array/microarray/DNA chip
    Put a bunch of fragments from PCR on a slide,(one for each ORF), Extract RNA from culture and make cDNA by reverse transcriptase under different conditions (with markers for each), Hybridize cDNA to microarrary to quantate cDNA per condition
  372. The core gene pool codes for replication, transcription, ______, glycolysis, cell wall, etc
    translation
  373. The flexible gene pool codes for genomic islands, phages, plasmids, integrons, ________ insertion sequence
    transposons
  374. tissue tropism
    adsorption only to certain tissues within the host animal
  375. One the virus has entered the cell through endocytosis and is in the endosome, it can leave the endosome by...
    fusion with the endosome, release by digestive enzymes, of (somehow) the DNA being sent out
  376. DNA virus replication: Adsorption, penetration...
    uncoating of the chromosome
  377. DNA virus replication: uncoating of the chromosome...
    transport into the nucleus
  378. DNA virus replication: transport of chromosome into the nucleus...
    circularization and transcription in the nucleus
  379. DNA virus replication: circularization and transcription in the nucleus
    translation in the cytoplasm & transport of viral proteins into the nucleus
  380. DNA virus replication: Transport of viral proteins into nucleus
    viral DNA replication by viral DNA polymerase
  381. DNA viral replication: Viral DNA replication by viral DNA Polymerase
    Assembly of nucleo-capsids in nucleus
  382. DNA viral replication: assembly of nucleo-capsids in nucleus
    insertion of viral envelope proteins in rough endoplasmic reticulum and from there to nuclear envelope
  383. DNA virus replication: Insertion of viral envelope proteins in rough endoplasmic reticulum and from there to nucler membrance
    budding fo nucleo-capsids from nucleus into rough er, acquiring envelope
  384. DNA virus replication: budding of nuceo-capsids from nucleus into rough er, acquiring envelope
    transport of complete virus to cytoplasmic membrane for exocytosis
  385. Vaccina Virus
    used to vaccinate people against smallpox
  386. Chronic infection
    replication goes on; symptoms mild or absent (HIV, Hepatitis B)
  387. latent virus
    virus stops replicating (Herpes 1 &2)
  388. HHV 1 (Herpes Simplex Virus 1)
    Fever blisters above the waist
  389. HHV 2 (symptoms)
    Genital herpes
  390. HHV-3
    Chicken Pox, Varicella Zoster
  391. HHV-4
    Epstein-Barr Virus-Infectious Mononucleosis;Burkett's Lymphoma in African Children
  392. Neurotropic
    grow in nerve cells
  393. lymphtropic
    grow in lymphatic cells
  394. Cancer can be caused by ...
    mutations and viruses
  395. tumor (neoplasm)
    mass of cells growing in an un-regulated way
  396. sarcoma
    connective tissue tumor
  397. lymphoma
    lymphocyte tumor
  398. carcinoma
    epithelial cell tumor
  399. adenocarcinoma
    epithelium of glands tumor
  400. viroids infect
    plants
  401. the structure of viroids...
    circular, single-stranded, RNA molecule
  402. virusoids require a ______in order to infect a cell
    helper virus
  403. Characteristic of virusoids
    small, circular, SS RNA molecule, 1-2KB
  404. virusoids usually code for
    one or few genes
  405. Prions are...
    Proteinaceous Infectious Particles
  406. Prions cause
    Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSE) & Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
  407. Dementia
    loss of intellectual abilities
  408. ataxia
    loss of voluntary muscle control
  409. Creutzfeldt-jakob disease (CJD)
    uses Prions in humans
  410. Chlamydia is .2-1.5 micrometers in diameter, spherical, non-motile, and has _____ cell wall
    crosslinked disulfide bonded
  411. Chlamydia life cycle: Elementary bodies, transmission/infection, phagocytosis to inclusion bodies,______, replication, differentiation into elementary bodies
    reticulate bodies
  412. Chlamydia trachomatis causes
    trachoma and non-gonococcal urethritis
  413. Chlamydia psittaci causes
    Parrot fever
  414. Rickettsia prowakekii causes
    Louse-borne typhus
  415. Rickettsi typhii causes
    Typhus fever
  416. Rickettsia rickettsii causes

    Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  417. Mycoplasmas are pleomorphic,_________, .1-.25 micrometers
    bacteria without cell walls
  418. because mycoplasmas have no cell walls, they grow only
    with osmotic protection, such as in semi-solid media containing serum
  419. Mycoplasm pneumoniae causes
    pleuropneumoniae
  420. Molds and yeasts are both
    fungi
  421. Fungi are eukaryotes, primitive plants, 5-10 micrometers in diameter, 5K genes, _____ cell walls, form spores, non-motile, saprophytes
    chitin
  422. saprophytes
    decay dead creatures with hydrolytic enzymes
  423. Molds are fungi that...
    have hyphae, mycelium and make spores
  424. molds can be coenocytic or
    septate
  425. Mushrooms are ...
    basidiomycetes
  426. Candida albicans causes vaginitis, ______, and diaper rash
    candidiasis (thrush, moniliasis, white patches of mouth, tongue and vagina)
  427. Humoral Immunity: Antigen Presenting Cell..
    Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)
  428. Cell Mediated Immunity: Antigen Presenting Cell
    Major Histocompatibility Complex I
  429. Humor immunity uses which T-cells
    T-Helper-0 which differentiates into T-Helper-2
  430. Cell Mediated Immunity: Uses which T-Helper
    T-Helper-1
  431. Humor Immunity uses which lymphokines
    Interleukins 4,5,6
  432. Cell Mediated Immunity uses which lymphokines?
    Interleukin 2
  433. A serum which contains only one antibody
    Monoclonal antibody (mAb)
  434. Monoclonal antibody (mAb)
    A serum which contains only one antibody
  435. Myeloma forms cells that are immortal and an
    overproduction of plasma cells that pump out one specific antibody
  436. overproduction of plasma cells that pump out one specific antibody
    Myeloma forms cells that are immortal and an
  437. in actice acquisition you make the antibodies yourself, in _______ you are given the antibodies
    passive acquisition
  438. passive acquisition
    in actice acquisition you make the antibodies yourself, in _______ you are given the antibodies
  439. Shine-Dalgarno sequence is a site in ________ that serves to position the messenger for proper initiation of translation
    mRNA
  440. mRNA
    Shine-Dalgarno sequence is a site in ________ that serves to position the messenger for proper initiation of translation
  441. regulon
    a group of individual genes or operons which are subject to transcriptional control by a common regularoty protein
  442. a group of individual genes or operons which are subject to transcriptional control by a common regularoty protein
    regulon
  443. Operator
    A site in prokaryotic transcription that binds the repressor for negative control
  444. A site in prokaryotic transcription that binds the repressor for negative control
    Operator
  445. Activator Binding Site:
    A site in prokaryotic transcription that binds the activator for positive control
  446. A site in prokaryotic transcription that binds the activator for positive control
    Activator Binding Site:
  447. promoter
    a site in prokaryotic transcription that binds the sigma factor allowing transcription
  448. a site in prokaryotic transcription that binds the sigma factor allowing transcription
    promoter
  449. What deals out phagocytosis?
    Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, etc?
  450. Macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, etc?
    What deals out phagocytosis?

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