Chemotaxis works because the flagella tumbles______when there is food near
bacteria move by swimming (flagella), flexing (flagella in periplasm), _____ and swarming (flagella)
Gliding (no flagella)
In order to "glide" bacteria might extend and retract the...
E.coli has what type of chromosome
E.coli 's chromosome has how many genes?
Ecoli's chromosome has how many strands?
A nucleotide pair has what molecular wieght
660 molecular weight / pair
E.coli's chromomsome is about how long?
1100 micro meters
E.coli has about how many nucleotides per strand?
EUKARYOTES: have a true nucleus, prokaryotes have a
Eucaryotes divide by mitosis, prokaryotes divide by
Eukaryotes reproduce by sexual reproduction, meiosis, Prokaryotes...
have none or primitive sex
Eukaryotes have mitochondria, prokaryotes...
Eukaryotes that are plants have chloroplasts, prokaryotes...
have none or chromatophores
Cell wall are only had by Eukaryotes that are____&_____
plants or fungi
Fungi cell walls are made of
plant cell walls are made of
Eukaryotes have ribosomes 80s; prokaryotes have...
Eukaryotes are 8 to 100 microns in diameter, prokaryotes are ...
1 to 3 microns
Germination of endospores (entails what?)
spores resume metabolism and form growing cells
requires O2 (ex: pseudomonas aeruginosa)
requires O2, but in low concentration (ex: neisseria gonorrhoeae
growth with or without O2, better with O2 (ex E. Coli)
grow equally well with or without O2-Enterococcus fecalis
cannot grow in O2 (clostridium tetani)
Number of bacteria after n divisions
[H+} *[OH-] / [h2O]
Used as a tissue preservative
poisonous gas that kills bacteria
used in wound cleaning
some heavy metals that kill bacteria are silver nitrate (AgNO3) and...
A disinfectant kills pathogens on objects while a _____ kills pathogens on the body
some acids that kill bacteria are propionic acid, calcium propionate, glutamic acid and
Some alcohols that denature the proteins of bacteria are ...
isopropyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, antiseptics
High absorbance (optical density) means
Death by drying
Original syphilis cure; arsenic derivative
Sulfa drugs (sulfonamides) work by...
disrupting folic acid synthesis
sulfa drugs pretend to be
para amino benzoic acid
What is the money spot of penicillin?
The beta-lactam ring
B lactam ring is a structural analog of
Reverse Transcriptase makes
DNA from RNA
something produced by one organism that is toxic to another
prokaryotic ribosome 70s
Azidothymidine (azt) works by
disrupting reverse transcription by being a structural analog of thymidine
high energy bond or anhydride bond refers to the covalent bond when
two acids condense
bonds between glycosides
Covalent bond between two sulfur atoms when two sulfhydryls are linked
disulfide bond (cystine bond)
covalent bond between two amino acids
D Glucose and L Glucose are
steroisomers have the same chemical formulas, same functional groups, but different...
These have two or more asymetric carbons and differ in orientation only around one asymetric carbon
In enatiomers, D stands for
In enantiomers, L stands for
Adenine and Guanine are...
cytosine, thymine, and uracil are
N-glycosidic bonds are found in
O-glycosidic bonds are found in
When sequencing you cut up a bunch of chromosomes, clone in plasmids and phages, ________, close gaps between contigs, annotation
identify genes by comparing against known protein sequences
degree of identity
similar proteins from different species
Annotation of DNA (in sequencing): You must find the protein coding regions, what criteria?
>79 codons, Shine -Dalgarno sequences
How do you make a DNA array/gene array/microarray/DNA chip
Put a bunch of fragments from PCR on a slide,(one for each ORF), Extract RNA from culture and make cDNA by reverse transcriptase under different conditions (with markers for each), Hybridize cDNA to microarrary to quantate cDNA per condition
The core gene pool codes for replication, transcription, ______, glycolysis, cell wall, etc
The flexible gene pool codes for genomic islands, phages, plasmids, integrons, ________ insertion sequence
adsorption only to certain tissues within the host animal
One the virus has entered the cell through endocytosis and is in the endosome, it can leave the endosome by...
fusion with the endosome, release by digestive enzymes, of (somehow) the DNA being sent out
DNA virus replication: Adsorption, penetration...
uncoating of the chromosome
DNA virus replication: uncoating of the chromosome...
transport into the nucleus
DNA virus replication: transport of chromosome into the nucleus...
circularization and transcription in the nucleus
DNA virus replication: circularization and transcription in the nucleus
translation in the cytoplasm & transport of viral proteins into the nucleus
DNA virus replication: Transport of viral proteins into nucleus
viral DNA replication by viral DNA polymerase
DNA viral replication: Viral DNA replication by viral DNA Polymerase
Assembly of nucleo-capsids in nucleus
DNA viral replication: assembly of nucleo-capsids in nucleus
insertion of viral envelope proteins in rough endoplasmic reticulum and from there to nuclear envelope
DNA virus replication: Insertion of viral envelope proteins in rough endoplasmic reticulum and from there to nucler membrance
budding fo nucleo-capsids from nucleus into rough er, acquiring envelope
DNA virus replication: budding of nuceo-capsids from nucleus into rough er, acquiring envelope
transport of complete virus to cytoplasmic membrane for exocytosis
used to vaccinate people against smallpox
replication goes on; symptoms mild or absent (HIV, Hepatitis B)
virus stops replicating (Herpes 1 &2)
HHV 1 (Herpes Simplex Virus 1)
Fever blisters above the waist
HHV 2 (symptoms)
Chicken Pox, Varicella Zoster
Epstein-Barr Virus-Infectious Mononucleosis;Burkett's Lymphoma in African Children
grow in nerve cells
grow in lymphatic cells
Cancer can be caused by ...
mutations and viruses
mass of cells growing in an un-regulated way
connective tissue tumor
epithelial cell tumor
epithelium of glands tumor
the structure of viroids...
circular, single-stranded, RNA molecule
virusoids require a ______in order to infect a cell